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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 9

Group 9: Trees, shrubs, or woody vines; only pistillate flowers present; staminate or bisexual flowers unavailable for examination

1. Plant parasitic on stem of woody host plant ..... VISCACEAE {G6,7,8,11,12,14}

1' Plant free-living, rooted in ground

2. Trunk unbranched, generally stout, often covered with persistent woody leaf bases; leaves 4–7 m, pinnately compound ..... ARECACEAE (Phoenix) {G7,10}

2' Trunk(s) generally branched, slender to stout, generally not covered with persistent leaf bases; leaves generally much smaller, simple or compound

3. Leaves stiff and sword-like, 0.6–2 m, base much expanded, white, fleshy; inflorescence a large panicle ..... RUSCACEAE (Nolina) {G6,7,8,16}

3' Leaves not sword-like, mostly smaller, base not much expanded, white, and fleshy; inflorescences various

4. Leaves opposite or whorled

5. Leaves compound

6. Leaves palmate; leaflets 3 ..... SAPINDACEAE (Acer glabrum) {G20}

6' Leaves pinnate; leaflets often > 3

7. Woody vine; sepals generally 4, conspicuous, petal-like; pistils many; styles elongated and plumose in fruit ..... RANUNCULACEAE (Clematis) {G7}

7' Tree or large shrub; sepals generally 5 or number difficult to determine, very small; pistil 1; styles never plumose

8. Stigmas short, on slender style; ovary not winged in flower; fruit a 1-winged achene, not splitting ..... OLEACEAE (Fraxinus) {G7,12,16}

8' Stigmas linear, ± sessile; ovary with 2 short wings in flower; fruit generally splitting into winged mericarps ..... SAPINDACEAE (Acer negundo) {G7}

5' Leaves simple

9. Margins of leaves toothed ..... PICRODENDRACEAE (3) {G7,12}

9' Margins of leaves entire

10. Weak-stemmed shrub

11. Perianth parts in 3s, free; ovary superior, unlobed, smooth; NCo ..... ERICACEAE (Empetrum) (2) {G7,12,16}

11' Perianth parts in 4s, fused; ovary inferior, ± bilobed, smooth to covered with short bristles; widespread ..... RUBIACEAE (Galium) {G6,7,8,12}

10' Stouter shrub or tree

12. Stems and leaves covered with silvery scales ..... ELAEAGNACEAE (Shepherdia) {G7,12}

12' Stems and leaves glabrous or variously hairy

13. Petals fused proximally

14. Leaves glossy ..... RUBIACEAE ([Coprosma]) {G7}

14' Leaves densely hairy ..... SCROPHULARIACEAE (Buddleja) {G7,19}

13' Petals free or 0

15. Flowers in pendent catkins ..... GARRYACEAE {G7,11}

15' Flowers not in catkins

16. Stems green, jointed; leaves thin, dry, scarious, scale-like, often early-deciduous — structures appearing to be flowers actually ovulate cones of a gymnosperm ..... EPHEDRACEAE {G4,7}

16' Stems gray or brown or only young stems green, not jointed; leaves thin or thick, green, not dry and scarious, not scale-like, persistent or deciduous

17. Leaves thick, leathery, evergreen; flowers solitary; sepals well developed ..... SIMMONDSIACEAE {G7,12}

17' Leaves thin, deciduous; flowers in sessile, axillary clusters or short-peduncled racemes; sepals very small

18. Flowers subsessile, solitary or few in axils; styles 3–4; ovary 3–4-lobed; fruit a capsule ..... PICRODENDRACEAE (3) {G7,12}

18' Flowers pedicelled, in axillary clusters; style 1; ovary unlobed; fruit a drupe ..... OLEACEAE (Forestiera) {G7,12}

4' Leaves alternate (leaf often opposite a tendril or an inflorescence in Vitaceae)

19. Tendrils present; plant a vine; inflorescence an umbel or panicle; fruit a berry

20. Inflorescence an umbel ..... SMILACACEAE {G6,7,8,16}

20' Inflorescence a panicle ..... VITACEAE (Vitis) {G7,12,23}

19' Tendrils 0; plant a shrub or tree, rarely a vine; inflorescence, fruit various

21. Flowers in catkins or catkin-like spikes

22. Leaves compound

23. Leaves 1–2-pinnate, leaflets entire; fruit a long, flat ± indehiscent legume ..... FABACEAE (Gleditsia) {G7}

23' Leaves 1-pinnate, leaflets serrate; fruit a small 2-winged nut ..... JUGLANDACEAE ([Pterocarya])

22' Leaves simple

24. Shrubs of ± saline desert habitats; leaves ± thick and fleshy or very narrow and densely hairy; spikes erect or very short and axillary ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (3) {G6,7,8,11,15}

24' Shrubs or trees, generally of moister habitats; leaves thin and wide; spikes or catkins erect or pendent

25. Stipules 0

26. Leaves sessile; blades ± gray, entire, not resin-dotted; flowers enclosed by a pair of bractlets; fruit an achene or utricle, enclosed between and falling together with papery or hardened bractlets ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (3) {G6,7,8,11,15}

26' Leaves petioled; blades green, crenate or serrate, resin-dotted; flowers subtended by 2–4 bractlets; fruit a papillate, wax-coated drupe, free of subtending bractlets, or an achene enclosed by and falling together with a pair of spongy bractlets ..... MYRICACEAE {G7,11}

25' Stipules present, evident at least on new growth, sometimes deciduous but leaving evident scars

27. Styles or stigmas repeatedly branched into >> 4 fine, thread-like divisions; ovary 3-lobed, maturing as a capsule; stems brittle; shrub ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Acalypha) {G7,11}

27' Styles, style branches, or stigmas 2–4, generally not further divided; ovary generally unlobed, the fruits various, including capsules; stems mostly not brittle; shrub or tree

28. Catkins very dense at time of flower; only stigmas exserted beyond tips of tightly appressed bractlets; at maturity either catkin ± cone-like with ovaries ripening as winged achenes or bractlets expanding into 1 or more tubular involucres, each surrounding a nut ..... BETULACEAE {G11}

28' Catkins looser at time of flower; bractlets, if present, not tightly appressed, the ovaries or calyces generally visible on close inspection; at maturity either catkin becoming a ± open cluster of capsules or a fleshy multiple fruit

29. Ovary tightly enwrapped by 4 appressed sepals; catkin bractlets 0; sepals fleshy at maturity, together with ovaries maturing as a multiple fruit ..... MORACEAE (Morus)

29' Ovary not enclosed by sepals, calyx 0 or represented by an entire or slightly lobed rim; flowers subtended by bractlets, these sometimes deciduous; ovary ripening as a capsule containing several–many hair-tufted seeds ..... SALICACEAE {G7,11}

21' Flowers not in catkins or spikes — ovules never produced in cone-like catkins

30. Leaves and stems generally with many straight, weak, slender prickles ..... ROSACEAE (Rubus ursinus) {G7}

30' Leaves and stems without many straight, weak prickles (rarely with stout prickles), sometimes stems thorny or leaves spiny-margined

31. Leaves palmately lobed

32. Inflorescence an erect terminal panicle; shrubs; bark not flaking in large plates; leaves peltate, glabrous ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Ricinus) {G7,12}

32' Inflorescence axillary, generally drooping, of 1–7 spheric heads along an axis; trees; bark flaking from trunks in large plates; leaves obtuse to cordate at base, densely tomentose when young ..... PLATANACEAE {G7,10,12}

31' Leaves not palmately lobed

33. Stems and leaves stellate-hairy

34. Ovary clearly superior, 2–4-lobed; fruit a capsule; involucre 0; (sub)shrub with entire leaves or desert shrub with crenate leaves ..... EUPHORBIACEAE {G7,15}

34' Ovary inferior but sepals very small and often concealed by bractlets of involucre; fruit either an ovoid nut, subtended by a cup-like involucre, or a triangular nut, surrounded in groups of 1–3 by a bur-like involucre; shrub or tree with leaves entire, toothed, or pinnately lobed but not crenate ..... FAGACEAE {G7,11}

33' Stems and leaves glabrous or hairy but not stellate

35. Leaves compound

36. Petals 0; ovary inferior — fruit a nut with a ± dehiscent husk ..... JUGLANDACEAE {G7,11}

36' Petals present; ovary or ovaries superior

37. Leaflets with a few gland-tipped teeth near base; ovaries 5–6, joined only at style; fruit a cluster of winged achenes ..... SIMAROUBACEAE (Ailanthus) {G7,10,20}

37' Leaflets entire or teeth not gland-tipped; ovary 1; fruit of 1 drupe, capsule, or winged achene

38. Leaves strongly aromatic, dotted with minute, translucent glands; fruit a winged achene ..... RUTACEAE (Ptelea) {G20}

38' Leaves aromatic or not, not dotted with translucent glands; fruit a drupe or capsule

39. Leaflets 3–20, lance-linear to ovate, 10–130 mm; fruit a drupe ..... ANACARDIACEAE (2) {G7,20,23}

39' Leaflets 7–33, linear-oblong or narrowly elliptic, 2–10 mm; fruit drupe-like when young, capsule-like in age ..... BURSERACEAE {G7,20}

35' Leaves simple

40. Corolla 0; perianth parts 0 or in 1 series

41. Inflorescence a dense, spheric head; styles long, spreading; fruits and knobby-tipped, fleshy sepals ripening as a large multiple fruit ..... MORACEAE (Maclura) {G7}

41' Inflorescence not a spheric head; styles not long, spreading; fruits and sepals not forming multiple fruit

42. Flowers subtended or surrounded at base by an involucre of tiny scale-like bractlets; fruit an ovoid nut, subtended by a cup-like involucre; ovary inferior ..... FAGACEAE (Quercus)

42' Flowers without an involucre; fruit an achene, utricle, capsule, or drupe; ovary inferior or superior

43. Calyx 0; flowers or fruits each enclosed by a pair of tightly appressed bracts ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (3) {G6,7,8,11,15}

43' Calyx present; flowers or fruits not enclosed by a pair of tightly appressed bracts

44. Leaves strongly aromatic ..... LAURACEAE ([Laurus]) {G7}

44' Leaves not aromatic

45. Leaves fleshy, linear, ± cylindric; calyx fused to ovary, winged in fruit ..... SARCOBATACEAE {G7,11}

45' Leaves not fleshy, linear to round, flat; calyx free from ovary, not winged in fruit

46. Sepals free; fruit a capsule ..... PICRODENDRACEAE (3) {G7,12}

46' Sepals fused; fruit a drupe ..... RHAMNACEAE (Rhamnus) (2) {G7}

40' Corolla present; perianth parts in 2 series

47. Shrub with thorny green stems; leaves early deciduous, scale-like to narrowly oblong ..... SIMAROUBACEAE (Castela) {G7,10,23}

47' Tree, shrub, or woody vine, generally not thorny; leaves generally present, sometimes deciduous in winter or dry season

48. Flower parts in 3s ..... ERICACEAE (Empetrum) (2) {G7,12,16}

48' Flower parts generally in 4s or 5s

49. Flowers in involucred heads, these generally in open to dense clusters; ovary 1 per flower, inferior; calyx modified as a white to ± brown pappus ..... ASTERACEAE {G6,7,8,12,14,17}

49' Flowers not in heads; ovaries 1–5, superior; calyx green, not modified

50. Hypanthium present

51. Ovary 1; petals <= 1 mm, ± yellow; inflorescence an axillary cyme ..... RHAMNACEAE (Rhamnus) (2) {G7}

51' Ovaries generally 5; petals 3–6 mm, white; inflorescence a raceme ..... ROSACEAE (Oemleria) {G7}

50' Hypanthium 0

52. Flower parts in 4s; leaves spiny-toothed or entire ..... AQUIFOLIACEAE {G7}

52' Flower parts generally in 5s; leaves entire to lobed, not spiny-toothed

53. Petals 1–5 mm; fruit a drupe ..... ANACARDIACEAE (2) {G7,20,23}

53' Petals 10–15 mm; fruit a capsule — seeds sticky ..... PITTOSPORACEAE {G23}