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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 8

Group 8: Herbs, subshrubs, or herbaceous vines; only pistillate flowers present; staminate or bisexual flowers unavailable for examination

1. Plant fully aquatic, submersed, floating in water, or stranded on mud

2. Plant generally free-floating at or just below water surface, raft-like, the plant body 0.4–10 mm; leaves and stems not differentiated; roots 0–few, unbranched — pistil located in tiny lateral, membrane-covered pouch or in minute cavity on top of plant body ..... ARACEAE {G2,6,13,15}

2' Plant rooted in bottom sediments or free-floating, generally >> 15 mm; leaves and stems clearly differentiated; roots often branched

3. Leaves alternate

4. Fruits borne in umbel-like clusters — flowers actually bisexual but stamens easily overlooked and ephemeral ..... RUPPIACEAE {G2,10,13}

4' Fruits or flowers borne in spikes or heads

5. Flowers in dense, spheric heads, these solitary or in axillary or terminal clusters, not enclosed in leaf sheaths; freshwater habitats ..... TYPHACEAE (Sparganium) {G2,6,13}

5' Flowers in axillary spikes, these generally enclosed and concealed in sheaths of subtending leaves; marine habitats ..... ZOSTERACEAE {G2,6,13}

3' Leaves opposite or whorled or all basal

6. Leaves all basal; flowers solitary in leaf-axils; style very elongated, generally 6–20 cm ..... JUNCAGINACEAE (Triglochin scilloides) (2) {G13}

6' Leaves cauline; flowers axillary or variously clustered; styles generally << 6 cm (except in some Hydrocharitaceae)

7. Leaf blades [at least those of submersed leaves] divided into linear or thread-like lobes

8. Blades of leaves repeatedly forked ..... CERATOPHYLLACEAE {G2,6,14,15}

8' Blades of leaves pinnately forked ..... HALORAGACEAE {G2,6,14,20}

7' Leaf blades entire, toothed, or shallowly lobed

9. Petals and sepals both 3(4), evident; perianth and stigmas borne at water surface at end of long, tubular hypanthium; ovary inferior, sessile in leaf axil ..... HYDROCHARITACEAE {G2,6,16}

9' Petals and sepals both 0; stigmas submersed, borne at end of short styles; ovary or ovaries superior, sessile or short-stalked in leaf axil

10. Pistils 2–10, simple, each with a cup-like stigma; leaves entire ..... ZANNICHELLIACEAE {G2,10,13}

10' Pistil 1, compound, bearing 2–4 slender stigmas

11. Leaves subentire to finely or coarsely toothed; ovary chamber 1, ovule 1; fruit achene-like ..... HYDROCHARITACEAE (Najas) {G2,13}

11' Leaves entire; ovary chambers 4, ovules 4; fruit splitting into 4 nutlets ..... PLANTAGINACEAE (Callitriche) {G2,15}

1' Plant terrestrial or parasitic on stem of woody host, or if growing in wet habitat, rooted in place and emerging well above water surface

12. Plants parasitic on stems of woody host plants

13. Flowers of parasite borne directly on stems of host; remainder of parasite internal within tissues of host; stems and leaves not differentiated; on Psorothamnus ..... APODANTHACEAE {G6}

13' Flowers borne on leafy branches of parasite; shoots of parasite external; leaves differentiated, though sometimes reduced to scales; on various woody hosts [not Psorothamnus] ..... VISCACEAE {G6,7,9,11,12,14}

12' Plants free-living

14. Stem fleshy, bearing spiny tubercles; leaves 0 ..... CACTACEAE (Mammillaria dioica)

14' Stem generally not fleshy, without spiny tubercles; leaves generally present

15. Leaves opposite or whorled, not all basal

16. Stems or leaves thick and fleshy; inflorescence a terminal spike

17. Leaves ± cylindric or 3-angled in ×-section; stigma 1, head-like, 2-lobed; ovary chambers 4; ovaries joining into a fleshy multiple fruit; perianth 0 ..... BATACEAE {G6,15,24}

17' Leaves fleshy, scale-like; stigmas 2, linear; ovary chamber 1; ovaries maturing as utricles, sometimes surrounded by fleshy bracts and perianth elements ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (2) {G6,7,9,11,15}

16' Stems and leaves of normal texture, not thick and fleshy; inflorescence various

18. Leaves compound or deeply lobed, or also some simple

19. Compound leaves palmate ..... CANNABACEAE {G6,15}

19' Compound or deeply lobed leaves pinnate ..... VALERIANACEAE (Valeriana occidentalis)

18' Leaves simple, entire or toothed

20. Leaves whorled; ovary inferior ..... RUBIACEAE (Galium) {G6,7,9,12}

20' Leaves opposite; ovary superior

21. Leaves sessile or nearly so, entire; petals free ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE {G6,15,24}

21' Leaves conspicuously petioled, toothed; petals fused or 0

22. Corolla showy, bilateral ..... LAMIACEAE {G18,19}

22' Corolla 0

23. Styles 2, ovary 2-chambered; stinging hairs 0 ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Mercurialis) {G6}

23' Style 0 or 1, ovary 1-chambered; stinging hairs present or 0 ..... URTICACEAE {G6,15}

15' Leaves alternate or all basal

24. Leaves stiff and sword-like, 0.5–1.5 m; inflorescence a large panicle; perianth parts 6 ..... RUSCACEAE (Nolina) {G6,7,9,16}

24' Leaves not sword-like, often smaller; inflorescences various; perianth parts mostly other than 6

25. Blades of leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate, simple and entire; veins parallel; leaf bases sheathing stem

26. Leaves all basal; flowers solitary in leaf axils; styles very elongated, generally 6–20 cm ..... JUNCAGINACEAE (Triglochin scilloides) (2) {G13}

26' Leaves basal and cauline or all cauline; flowers in spikes or spikelets, these generally in 2° clusters; styles generally << 5 cm

27. Stem triangular; nodes not swollen; leaf blades channeled ..... CYPERACEAE {G2,13}

27' Stem round; nodes generally swollen and knot-like; leaf blades generally flat ..... POACEAE {G2,5,6,13}

25' Blades of leaves variously shaped, sometimes toothed, lobed, or compound; veins mostly pinnate or palmate; leaf bases often not sheathing stems — flowers not in spikelets

28. Ocreae present, persistent or not; nodes generally ± swollen ..... POLYGONACEAE {G2,6,15,16,19}

28' Ocreae 0; nodes generally not swollen

29. Leaves all basal

30. Leaves compound, leaflets 3; perianth parts in 5s; stolons present ..... ROSACEAE (Fragaria) {G6}

30' Leaves simple, entire; perianth parts in 3s or 4s; stolons 0

31. Perianth parts in 4s; fruit a circumscissile capsule ..... PLANTAGINACEAE (Plantago) {G5,18,19}

31' Perianth parts in 3s; fruit 1–many achenes

32. Perianth clearly differentiated into sepals and petals; pistils many; plant ± emergent aquatic, annual or perennial herb ..... ALISMATACEAE (Sagittaria) {G6}

32' Perianth whorls not strongly differentiated, outer and inner similar; pistil 1; plant terrestrial matted per ..... POLYGONACEAE (Eriogonum) {G6,12}

29' At least some leaves cauline

33. Plants vines

34. Tendrils 0; perianth not at all corolla-like; ovary superior ..... CANNABACEAE (Humulus) {G6,15}

34' Tendrils present; perianth corolla-like

35. Ovary inferior ..... CUCURBITACEAE {G6,14,17,21}

35' Ovary superior ..... SMILACACEAE {G6,7,9,16}

33' Plants prostrate to erect herbs

36. Pistils 2–22, simple; fruit a cluster of achenes or follicles

37. Leaves simple, fleshy ..... CRASSULACEAE (Rhodiola) {G6}

37' Leaves compound, leaflets thin

38. Leaflets coarsely crenate or shallowly lobed; sepals generally 4; petals 0; inflorescence an open panicle ..... RANUNCULACEAE (Thalictrum) {G6}

38' Leaflets 2-serrate; sepals 5; petals 5; inflorescence a panicle of dense spikes ..... ROSACEAE (Aruncus) {G6}

36' Pistil 1, simple or compound; fruit achene, utricle, capsule, or splitting into 2–13 mericarps

39. Flowers in umbels or heads

40. Inflorescence a simple or compound umbel ..... APIACEAE {G2,6,14,20,21}

40' Inflorescence of 1 or more heads

41. Head maturing as bur enclosing 1–5 fruits ..... ASTERACEAE (2) {G6,7,9,12,14,17}

41' Head not maturing as bur

42. Corolla 0; head without involucre; ovary superior ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (2) {G6,7,9,11,15}

42' Corolla tubular; head subtended by an involucre; ovary inferior ..... ASTERACEAE (2) {G6,7,9,12,14,17}

39' Flowers solitary or in axillary clusters or in racemes or panicles

43. Style branches 5–19; fruit splitting into 5–19 wedge-shaped mericarps at maturity ..... MALVACEAE {G19,20,22}

43' Style unbranched or branches 2 or 3 (dissected into linear lobes in Croton); fruit unsegmented or splitting into 2–3 segments

44. Leaves palmately compound, leaflets serrate ..... CANNABACEAE (Cannabis) {G6,15}

44' Leaves entire or toothed

45. Leaves densely stellate-scaly or -hairy; ovary chambers generally 3; fruit a capsule ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Croton) {G6,12}

45' Leaves not stellate-hairy; ovary chamber 1; fruit an achene or utricle

46. Bractlets subtending flower 3, winged, abaxially bearing hooked hairs; stigma 1, sessile, hair-tufted; sepals 4, fused ..... URTICACEAE (Soleirolia) {G6}

46' Bractlets subtending flower 1–2, without hooked hairs; stigmas 2, linear; sepals 0 or 3–5, free

47. Flower enclosed between a pair of bractlets; sepals generally 0; leaves generally bearing bead-like, sessile hairs or powdery scales ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (Atriplex) {G6,12}

47' Flower not enclosed by a pair of bractlets; sepals 3–5; leaves glabrous or glaucous ..... AMARANTHACEAE (Amaranthus) {G6}

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