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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 6

Group 6: Herbs, subshrubs, or herbaceous vines; only staminate flowers present; pistillate or bisexual flowers unavailable for examination

1. Plant fully aquatic, submersed, floating in water, or stranded on mud

2. Plant generally free-floating, at or just below water surface, plant body 0.4–10 mm; leaves and stems not differentiated; roots 0–few, unbranched — stamens emerging from tiny lateral, membrane-covered pouch or from minute cavity on top of plant body ..... ARACEAE {G2,8,13,15}

2' Plant rooted in bottom sediments or free-floating, >> 10 mm; leaves and stems clearly differentiated; roots often branched

3. Leaves alternate

4. Flowers in dense, spheric heads, these solitary or in axillary or terminal clusters, not enclosed in leaf sheaths; freshwater habitats ..... TYPHACEAE (Sparganium) {G2,8,13}

4' Flowers in axillary spikes, these generally enclosed and concealed in sheaths of subtending leaves; marine habitats ..... ZOSTERACEAE {G2,8,13}

3' Leaves opposite or whorled

5. Leaf blades entire, toothed, or shallowly lobed ..... HYDROCHARITACEAE {G2,8,16}

5' Leaf blades [at least those of submersed leaves] divided into linear or thread-like lobes

6. Blades of leaves repeatedly forked ..... CERATOPHYLLACEAE {G2,8,14,15}

6' Blades of leaves pinnately divided ..... HALORAGACEAE {G2,8,14,20}

1' Plant terrestrial or parasitic on stem of woody host plant, or if growing in wet habitat, rooted in place and emerging well above water surface

7. Plant parasitic on stem of woody host plant

8. Flowers of parasite borne directly on stems of host; remainder of parasite internal within tissues of host; stems and leaves not differentiated; on Psorothamnus ..... APODANTHACEAE {G8}

8' Flowers borne on leafy branches of parasite; shoots of parasite external; leaves differentiated though sometimes reduced to scales; on various woody hosts [not Psorothamnus] ..... VISCACEAE {G7,8,9,11,12,14}

7' Plant free-living

9. Leaves opposite or whorled, not all basal

10. Stems or leaves thick and fleshy; inflorescence a terminal spike

11. Leaves ± cylindric or 3-angled in ×-section; petal-like perianth parts 4 ..... BATACEAE {G8,15,24}

11' Leaves fleshy, scale-like; petal-like perianth parts 0 ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (2) {G7,8,9,11,15}

10' Stems and leaves of normal texture, not thick and fleshy; inflorescences various

12. Leaves palmately compound or simple and deeply lobed ..... CANNABACEAE {G8,15}

12' Leaves simple, entire or toothed

13. Leaves whorled ..... RUBIACEAE (Galium) {G7,8,9,12}

13' Leaves opposite

14. Leaves sessile or nearly so, entire ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE {G8,15,24}

14' Leaves conspicuously petioled, toothed

15. Stamens 8–15(20); stinging hairs 0 ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Mercurialis) {G8}

15' Stamens 4; stinging hairs present or 0 ..... URTICACEAE {G8,15}

9' Leaves alternate or all basal

16. Leaves stiff and sword-like, 5–15 dm; inflorescence a large panicle; perianth parts 6 ..... RUSCACEAE (Nolina) {G7,8,9,16}

16' Leaves not sword-like, often smaller; inflorescences various; perianth parts often other than 6

17. Leaf blades linear or narrowly lanceolate, simple and entire, veins parallel; leaf bases sheathing

18. Inflorescence a panicle or raceme of showy flowers; perianth parts all petal-like, white to ± yellow, each with a glistening, ± green-yellow gland in proximal half ..... MELANTHIACEAE (Toxicoscordion)

18' Inflorescence a cluster of spikelets (sometimes panicle- or raceme-like); perianth parts 0 or minute scales

19. Stem triangular, nodes not swollen; leaf blades channeled ..... CYPERACEAE (Carex)

19' Stem round; nodes generally swollen and knot-like; leaf blades generally flat ..... POACEAE {G2,5,8,13}

17' Leaf blades variously shaped, sometimes toothed, lobed, or compound, veins mostly pinnate or palmate; leaf bases generally not sheathing

20. Ocreae present, persistent or not; nodes generally swollen ..... POLYGONACEAE {G2,8,15,16,19}

20' Ocreae 0; nodes generally not swollen

21. Leaves all basal

22. Leaves compound, leaflets 3; perianth parts in 5s; stolons present ..... ROSACEAE (Fragaria) {G8}

22' Leaves simple, entire; perianth parts in 3s; stolons 0

23. Perianth clearly differentiated into sepals and petals; plant ± emergent aquatic, annual or perennial herb ..... ALISMATACEAE (Sagittaria) {G8}

23' Perianth whorls not strongly differentiated, outer and inner similar; plant terrestrial, matted per ..... POLYGONACEAE (Eriogonum) {G8,12}

21' At least some leaves cauline

24. Plants vines

25. Tendrils 0; perianth parts not at all petal-like; stamens free ..... CANNABACEAE (Humulus) {G8,15}

25' Tendrils present; perianth parts petal-like

26. Perianth parts fused, at least at base; stamens fused, number difficult to determine ..... CUCURBITACEAE {G8,14,17,21}

26' Perianth parts free; stamens 6, free ..... SMILACACEAE {G7,8,9,16}

24' Plants prostrate to erect herbs

27. Flowers in heads or umbels

28. Inflorescence a simple or compound umbel ..... APIACEAE (2) {G2,8,14,20,21}

28' Inflorescence of 1 or more heads

29. Heads without involucres ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (2) {G7,8,9,11,15}

29' Heads each subtended by an involucre

30. Stamens free; petals free ..... APIACEAE (2) {G2,8,14,20,21}

30' Stamens fused by their anthers; petals fused or 0 ..... ASTERACEAE {G7,8,9,12,14,17}

27' Flowers in axillary clusters, racemes, or panicles

31. Leaves deeply lobed or compound

32. Leaves palmately compound, the leaflets serrate ..... CANNABACEAE (Cannabis) {G8,15}

32' Leaves pinnately dissected or compound, the lobes or leaflets entire to coarsely toothed

33. Leaves simple or 1-pinnate; anthers subsessile, 3–6 mm — sepals 4–9, inflorescence a leafy raceme or panicle ..... DATISCACEAE {G14}

33' Leaves 2–4-pinnate; anthers exserted on slender filaments

34. Leaflets coarsely crenate or shallowly lobed; sepals 4–5; petals 0; anthers linear, 1.5–5 mm; inflorescence an open panicle ..... RANUNCULACEAE (Thalictrum) {G8}

34' Leaflets 2-serrate; sepals 5; petals 5; anthers oval, < 1 mm; inflorescence a panicle of dense spikes ..... ROSACEAE (Aruncus) {G8}

31' Leaves entire or toothed

35. Blades of leaves with several main veins; perianth parts >= 6 mm ..... MELANTHIACEAE (Veratrum) {G16}

35' Blades of leaves with 1–3 main veins; perianth parts generally <= 5 mm

36. Herbage armed with stinging, nettle-like hairs ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Tragia) {G15}

36' Herbage glabrous or with non-stinging hairs

37. Leaves covered with stellate scales or hairs ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Croton) {G8,12}

37' Leaves without stellate scales or hairs

38. Leaves generally bearing bead-like, sessile hairs or powdery scales ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (Atriplex) {G8,12}

38' Leaves glabrous or glaucous

39. Leaves fleshy; sepals, petals each 4(5) ..... CRASSULACEAE (Rhodiola) {G8}

39' Leaves thin or fleshy; sepals 2–6, petals 0

40. Milky latex present; leaf blade base generally with 2 glands ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Stillingia)

40' Milky latex 0; leaf blade base without glands

41. Leaf ± round, blade with translucent dots; plant mat-forming ..... URTICACEAE (Soleirolia) {G8}

41' Leaf linear to (ob)ovate, blade without translucent dots; plant mat-forming to erect ..... AMARANTHACEAE (Amaranthus) {G8}