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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 4

Group 4: Woody plants; pollen grains borne in 2–10(15) sacs on each scale or filament-like stalk of pollen cone; seeds borne between scales of seed cone or naked on branches; flowers never formed [Gymnosperms]

1. Specimens with pollen-producing cones only; ovule/seed-producing structures unavailable

2. Leaves opposite or whorled

3. Stems jointed at nodes, the internodes [main sites of photosynthesis] long, ± green; leaves dry, scale-like, often early deciduous, not overlapping; pollen cones with stamen-like structures, the pollen sacs borne on stout, filament-like stalks ..... EPHEDRACEAE (2) {G7,9}

3' Stems not jointed at nodes, the internodes generally very short; leaves green, scale-, awl-, or needle-like, persistent, crowded, generally closely overlapping; pollen cones with sessile pollen sacs ..... CUPRESSACEAE (3) {G7}

2' Leaves alternate

4. Pollen cones in leaf axils on 1-year old twigs; pollen sacs in groups of 4–16 on stout, filament-like stalks ..... TAXACEAE (2) {G7}

4' Pollen cones terminal or in axils of newly formed leaves of current season; pollen sacs 2–6, sessile on abaxial faces of cone scales

5. Leaves needle-like; pollen sacs 2 per cone scale ..... PINACEAE (2) {G7}

5' Leaves needle-, awl-, or scale-like; pollen sacs 2–6 per cone scale ..... CUPRESSACEAE (3) {G7}

1' Specimens with ovule/seed-producing structures; pollen-producing cones present or 0

6. Ovules/seeds borne in a cone that becomes ± woody at maturity

7. Cone bracts present, individually subtending and ± free from cone scales, exserted beyond cone scales or ± < scales and then ± hidden by them; leaves needle-like; ovules/seeds 2 per cone scale; seeds distally 1-winged or wingless ..... PINACEAE (2) {G7}

7' Cone bracts not evident, ± wholly fused to cone scales; leaves scale-like, awl-like, or needle-like; ovules/seeds 1–many per cone scale; seeds laterally 2-winged (wing sometimes very narrow) or distally 1-winged in Calocedrus ..... CUPRESSACEAE (3) {G7}

6' Ovules/seeds exposed on branches or surrounded by a ± perianth-like cluster of membranous scales, or enclosed in a cone that becomes fleshy and berry-like at maturity

8. Stems jointed at nodes, the internodes [main sites of photosynthesis] long, green; leaves dry, scale-like, often early deciduous, not overlapping; ovules/seed(s) surrounded by a ± perianth-like cluster of membranous scales; pollen cones with stamen-like structures, the pollen sacs borne on stout, filament-like stalks ..... EPHEDRACEAE (2) {G7,9}

8' Stems not jointed at nodes, the internodes generally very short; leaves green, scale-like, awl-like, or needle-like, persistent, crowded, sometimes overlapping; ovules/seeds enclosed in fleshy cones or exposed on branches and seeds individually subtended or surrounded by fleshy aril; pollen cones with sessile or stalked pollen sacs

9. Leaves opposite or whorled, 1–20+ mm, scale-, awl-, or needle-like; seeds 1–3, enclosed in a fleshy, berry-like cone; pollen sacs 2–6, sessile on abaxial faces of cone scales ..... CUPRESSACEAE (Juniperus)

9' Leaves alternate, 12–70 mm, needle-like; seed 1, ± enclosed by a fleshy, generally colored aril; pollen cones with stamen-like structures, pollen sacs in groups of 4–16 on stout filament-like stalks ..... TAXACEAE (2) {G7}


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