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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 24

Group 24: Herbs or subshrubs; leaves simple; perianth in 2 whorls; petals 4 or more, free; stamens 2 × as many as petals or fewer; pistil 1, ovary superior

1. Flower bilateral

2. Proximal part of calyx with a protruding, hollow spur

3. Leaf not peltate; ovary chambers 5, several-seeded; fruit an exploding capsule ..... BALSAMINACEAE {G16}

3' Leaf peltate; ovary chambers 3, 1-seeded; fruit breaking into 3 1-seeded mericarps ..... TROPAEOLACEAE

2' Proximal part of calyx without a protruding spur, spur 0 or fused to pedicel

4. Filaments of all or all but 1 stamen fused, at least proximally

5. Petals not strongly overlapping; ovary chambers and style branches 5; style base elongating, forming a stiff beak, beak segments coiled on segments of dry fruit ..... GERANIACEAE (Pelargonium) {G23}

5' Petals strongly overlapping; ovary chambers 1 or 2, style unbranched, not forming beak on fruit

6. Sepals all fused, at least at base, forming a cup-shaped to cylindric calyx tube, generally not petal-like; the odd petal [banner] uppermost, overlapping the margins of the 2 upper lateral petals; lower 2 lateral petals generally free at base but fused toward the tip, forming a keel that encloses stamens and ovary; fruit a legume or indehiscent pod ..... FABACEAE (Papilionoideae)

6' Sepals free, 2 of them petal-like, spreading and very different from the other 3; the odd petal lowermost, often appendaged, folded and forming a keel enclosing stamens and ovary, a banner petal never present; fruit a flattened capsule ..... POLYGALACEAE {G15,18,22,23}

4' Filaments free (0 or fused in pairs)

7. Flowers solitary; petals 5 ..... VIOLACEAE {G5,15,20}

7' Flowers in raceme or spike; petals 2 or 4

8. Inflorescence a spike; ovary 4-lobed, stigmas 4; developing fruit open at tip; stamens 3–4 ..... RESEDACEAE (Oligomeris)

8' Inflorescence a raceme or panicle; ovary unlobed or 2-lobed, stigma 1–2; developing fruit closed at tip

9. Sepals free to base; stamens 6; flowers not subtended by bracts ..... BRASSICACEAE (2) {G2,15,20}

9' Sepals proximally fused to hypanthium; stamens 3; each flower subtended by a bract ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (Tolmiea)

1' Flower radial

10. Plants without green pigmentation ..... ERICACEAE (2) {G17,18,19}

10' Plants green and photosynthetic

11. Petals 4

12. Leaves alternate, sometimes all basal

13. Leaves ± fleshy; sepals 2 ..... MONTIACEAE (Calyptridium) {G16}

13' Leaves not fleshy; sepals 4 ..... BRASSICACEAE (2) {G2,15,20}

12' Leaves opposite or whorled

14. Leaves ± cylindric or 3-angled in ×-section, fleshy; flowers unisexual, dioecious perennial herb or subshrub; petals present only in staminate flowers ..... BATACEAE {G6,8,15}

14' Leaves not fleshy; flowers bisexual, annual to subshrub; petals present in all flowers

15. Sepals free or nearly so, hypanthium 0

16. Petals 6–20 mm, each bearing a prominent, fringed appendage ..... GENTIANACEAE

16' Petals <= 6 mm, not appendaged

17. Flowers pedicelled, terminal or from distal axils, sometimes in cymes; leaf without stipules; stamens 4 or 8 ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (4) {G6,8,15}

17' Flowers ± sessile in leaf axils (pedicel elongating in fruit); leaf with stipules; stamens 8 ..... ELATINACEAE (Elatine californica)

15' Sepals fused, at least toward base, or hypanthium present

18. Leaves generally shallowly few-toothed; inflorescence a dense cyme or raceme borne on a terminal peduncle — ovary actually 1/2 inferior but easily misinterpreted as superior ..... HYDRANGEACEAE {G21}

18' Leaves entire; inflorescence of axillary or terminal cymes or flowers solitary, axillary

19. Petals borne on receptacle; style 2–3(4)-branched, rarely unbranched ..... FRANKENIACEAE (2)

19' Petals borne on inner face of hypanthium; style unbranched ..... LYTHRACEAE {G22}

11' Petals 5 or more

20. Flower unisexual ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Ditaxis) {G22}

20' Flower bisexual

21. Sepals 2 or 3

22. Leaves ± fleshy; sepals persistent on opened flower and fruit ..... MONTIACEAE {G19,22}

22' Leaves not fleshy; sepals early-deciduous, 0 in open flower and fruit ..... PAPAVERACEAE (Papaveroideae) {G12,15,20,22}

21' Sepals 5 or more

23. Stamens > in number than petals

24. Leaves alternate, sometimes all basal

25. Style branches and stigmas 5; style elongating, forming a beak; ovules 1 per ovary chamber; fruit breaking into 5 one-seeded mericarps, each tipped with a coiled beak segment ..... GERANIACEAE (Geranium) {G20}

25' Styles or style branches 1–3, stigmas 1–3; style not elongating or forming a beak; ovules several–many per ovary chamber; fruit a capsule

26. Stigmas 2–3, sessile or borne on 2–3 styles or style branches ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (2) {G10,20,21}

26' Stigma 1, sessile or borne on an unbranched style

27. Flower disk-shaped, without a hypanthium; stamens dehiscent by pores ..... ERICACEAE (2) {G17,18,19}

27' Flower with a tubular hypanthium; stamens dehiscent along the sides by slits ..... LYTHRACEAE (Lythrum) (2)

24' Leaves opposite or whorled

28. Stigma and style 1

29. Flower without a hypanthium; leaf toothed ..... ERICACEAE (Chimaphila)

29' Flower with a tubular hypanthium; leaf entire ..... LYTHRACEAE (Lythrum) (2)

28' Stigmas 2–6

30. Leaf lobed; opposite leaves a single pair, the remainder all basal; stigmas 3 — ovary chamber 1, placentas parietal — ovary actually ± 1/2 inferior ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (Lithophragma cymbalaria)

30' Leaf entire or shallowly toothed; opposite leaves generally several–many pairs; stigmas 2–6

31. Leaf entire; ovary chamber 1 (rarely 2–4)

32. Leaf not gland-dotted; petals white to pink, purple, or red; placentas free-central (axile) ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (4) {G6,8,15}

32' Leaf gland-dotted; petals yellow; placentas parietal ..... HYPERICACEAE {G22}

31' Leaf crenate-serrate to serrate; ovary chambers 5–6

33. Flowers 1–few, sessile or short-pedicelled in leaf axils; annual; leaf teeth gland-tipped ..... ELATINACEAE (Bergia)

33' Flowers in a dense cyme or raceme borne on a terminal peduncle; perennial herb to subshrub; leaf teeth not gland-tipped — ovary actually 1/2 inferior but easily misinterpreted as superior ..... HYDRANGEACEAE (Whipplea)

23' Stamens = in number to petals or fewer

34. Leaves opposite or whorled

35. Leaves, or at least distal-most, toothed or lobed (proximally generally entire in Sclerolinon)

36. Petals white to pink or purple; inflorescence an umbel ..... GERANIACEAE (2)

36' Petals yellow; inflorescence a cyme ..... LINACEAE (Sclerolinon)

35' Leaves entire

37. Stamens opposite petals — petals actually fused but easily misinterpreted as free ..... MYRSINACEAE {G19}

37' Stamens alternate petals or of different numbers

38. Sepals evidently fused above base

39. Leaf ± linear, acute ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (4) {G6,8,15}

39' Leaf oblong to obovate, obtuse, margin often curled under and leaf appearing narrower ..... FRANKENIACEAE (2)

38' Sepals free or nearly so

40. Petals without fringed nectary pits ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (4) {G6,8,15}

40' Base or center of each petal with 2 fringed nectary pits (sometimes appearing as 1 due to overlapping fringes) — petals actually fused but easily misinterpreted as free ..... GENTIANACEAE (Swertia)

34' Leaves alternate, sometimes all basal

41. Leaf linear, entire

42. Leaves cauline; flowers solitary or in racemes, panicles, or cymes ..... LINACEAE (2)

42' Leaves all basal; flowers in scapose heads ..... PLUMBAGINACEAE (Armeria)

41' Leaf wider, often toothed or lobed

43. Leaf covered with long, gland-tipped, insect-trapping hairs ..... DROSERACEAE

43' Leaf without insect-trapping hairs

44. Styles, style branches, or stigmas 2–4

45. Flowers solitary; stamens alternating with toothed or fringed staminodes; stigmas 4 ..... PARNASSIACEAE

45' Flowers 2–many; staminodes 0; stigmas 2–3

46. Annual; leaf veins pinnate or lateral veins obscure; hypanthium 0; ovary unlobed ..... LINACEAE (2)

46' Perennial herb; leaf veins ± palmate; hypanthium present; ovary generally 2–3-lobed distally ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (2) {G10,20,21}

44' Styles or style branches 5 or more

47. Filaments fused in tube around style; petals thread-like ..... MALVACEAE (Ayenia)

47' Filaments free or fused only at base; petals wider

48. Style elongating, forming a beak; fruit breaking into 5 one-seeded mericarps, each tipped with a coiled beak segment; flowers in umbels ..... GERANIACEAE (2)

48' Styles not elongating and forming a beak; fruit not breaking into mericarps; flowers in a raceme, cyme, or panicle-like inflorescence

49. Sepals free, ± green; fruit a capsule, 5- or 10-seeded; flowers in a raceme or cyme ..... LINACEAE (Linum)

49' Sepals fused, generally pink to blue; fruit indehiscent, 1-seeded; flowers in a panicle-like inflorescence ..... PLUMBAGINACEAE (Limonium)