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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 24

Group 24: Herbs or subshrubs; leaves simple; perianth in 2 whorls; petals 4 or more, free; stamens 2 × as many as petals or fewer; pistil 1, ovary superior

1. Flower bilateral

2. Proximal part of calyx with a protruding, hollow spur

3. Leaf not peltate; ovary chambers 5, several-seeded; fruit an exploding capsule ..... BALSAMINACEAE {G16}

3' Leaf peltate; ovary chambers 3, 1-seeded; fruit breaking into 3 1-seeded mericarps ..... TROPAEOLACEAE

2' Proximal part of calyx without a protruding spur, spur 0 or fused to pedicel

4. Filaments of all or all but 1 stamen fused, at least proximally

5. Petals not strongly overlapping; ovary chambers and style branches 5; style base elongating, forming a stiff beak, beak segments coiled on segments of dry fruit ..... GERANIACEAE (Pelargonium) {G23}

5' Petals strongly overlapping; ovary chambers 1 or 2, style unbranched, not forming beak on fruit

6. Sepals all fused, at least at base, forming a cup-shaped to cylindric calyx tube, generally not petal-like; the odd petal [banner] uppermost, overlapping the margins of the 2 upper lateral petals; lower 2 lateral petals generally free at base but fused toward the tip, forming a keel that encloses stamens and ovary; fruit a legume or indehiscent pod ..... FABACEAE (Papilionoideae)

6' Sepals free, 2 of them petal-like, spreading and very different from the other 3; the odd petal lowermost, often appendaged, folded and forming a keel enclosing stamens and ovary, a banner petal never present; fruit a flattened capsule ..... POLYGALACEAE {G15,18,22,23}

4' Filaments free (0 or fused in pairs)

7. Flowers solitary; petals 5 ..... VIOLACEAE {G5,15,20}

7' Flowers in raceme or spike; petals 2 or 4

8. Inflorescence a spike; ovary 4-lobed, stigmas 4; developing fruit open at tip; stamens 3–4 ..... RESEDACEAE (Oligomeris)

8' Inflorescence a raceme or panicle; ovary unlobed or 2-lobed, stigma 1–2; developing fruit closed at tip

9. Sepals free to base; stamens 6; flowers not subtended by bracts ..... BRASSICACEAE (2) {G2,15,20}

9' Sepals proximally fused to hypanthium; stamens 3; each flower subtended by a bract ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (Tolmiea)

1' Flower radial

10. Plants without green pigmentation ..... ERICACEAE (2) {G17,18,19}

10' Plants green and photosynthetic

11. Petals 4

12. Leaves alternate, sometimes all basal

13. Leaves ± fleshy; sepals 2 ..... MONTIACEAE (Calyptridium) {G16}

13' Leaves not fleshy; sepals 4 ..... BRASSICACEAE (2) {G2,15,20}

12' Leaves opposite or whorled

14. Leaves ± cylindric or 3-angled in ×-section, fleshy; flowers unisexual, dioecious perennial herb or subshrub; petals present only in staminate flowers ..... BATACEAE {G6,8,15}

14' Leaves not fleshy; flowers bisexual, annual to subshrub; petals present in all flowers

15. Sepals free or nearly so, hypanthium 0

16. Petals 6–20 mm, each bearing a prominent, fringed appendage ..... GENTIANACEAE

16' Petals <= 6 mm, not appendaged

17. Flowers pedicelled, terminal or from distal axils, sometimes in cymes; leaf without stipules; stamens 4 or 8 ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (4) {G6,8,15}

17' Flowers ± sessile in leaf axils (pedicel elongating in fruit); leaf with stipules; stamens 8 ..... ELATINACEAE (Elatine californica)

15' Sepals fused, at least toward base, or hypanthium present

18. Leaves generally shallowly few-toothed; inflorescence a dense cyme or raceme borne on a terminal peduncle — ovary actually 1/2 inferior but easily misinterpreted as superior ..... HYDRANGEACEAE {G21}

18' Leaves entire; inflorescence of axillary or terminal cymes or flowers solitary, axillary

19. Petals borne on receptacle; style 2–3(4)-branched, rarely unbranched ..... FRANKENIACEAE (2)

19' Petals borne on inner face of hypanthium; style unbranched ..... LYTHRACEAE {G22}

11' Petals 5 or more

20. Flower unisexual ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Ditaxis) {G22}

20' Flower bisexual

21. Sepals 2 or 3

22. Leaves ± fleshy; sepals persistent on opened flower and fruit ..... MONTIACEAE {G19,22}

22' Leaves not fleshy; sepals early-deciduous, 0 in open flower and fruit ..... PAPAVERACEAE (Papaveroideae) {G12,15,20,22}

21' Sepals 5 or more

23. Stamens > in number than petals

24. Leaves alternate, sometimes all basal

25. Style branches and stigmas 5; style elongating, forming a beak; ovules 1 per ovary chamber; fruit breaking into 5 one-seeded mericarps, each tipped with a coiled beak segment ..... GERANIACEAE (Geranium) {G20}

25' Styles or style branches 1–3, stigmas 1–3; style not elongating or forming a beak; ovules several–many per ovary chamber; fruit a capsule

26. Stigmas 2–3, sessile or borne on 2–3 styles or style branches ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (2) {G10,20,21}

26' Stigma 1, sessile or borne on an unbranched style

27. Flower disk-shaped, without a hypanthium; stamens dehiscent by pores ..... ERICACEAE (2) {G17,18,19}

27' Flower with a tubular hypanthium; stamens dehiscent along the sides by slits ..... LYTHRACEAE (Lythrum) (2)

24' Leaves opposite or whorled

28. Stigma and style 1

29. Flower without a hypanthium; leaf toothed ..... ERICACEAE (Chimaphila)

29' Flower with a tubular hypanthium; leaf entire ..... LYTHRACEAE (Lythrum) (2)

28' Stigmas 2–6

30. Leaf lobed; opposite leaves a single pair, the remainder all basal; stigmas 3 — ovary chamber 1, placentas parietal — ovary actually ± 1/2 inferior ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (Lithophragma cymbalaria)

30' Leaf entire or shallowly toothed; opposite leaves generally several–many pairs; stigmas 2–6

31. Leaf entire; ovary chamber 1 (rarely 2–4)

32. Leaf not gland-dotted; petals white to pink, purple, or red; placentas free-central (axile) ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (4) {G6,8,15}

32' Leaf gland-dotted; petals yellow; placentas parietal ..... HYPERICACEAE {G22}

31' Leaf crenate-serrate to serrate; ovary chambers 5–6

33. Flowers 1–few, sessile or short-pedicelled in leaf axils; annual; leaf teeth gland-tipped ..... ELATINACEAE (Bergia)

33' Flowers in a dense cyme or raceme borne on a terminal peduncle; perennial herb to subshrub; leaf teeth not gland-tipped — ovary actually 1/2 inferior but easily misinterpreted as superior ..... HYDRANGEACEAE (Whipplea)

23' Stamens = in number to petals or fewer

34. Leaves opposite or whorled

35. Leaves, or at least distal-most, toothed or lobed (proximally generally entire in Sclerolinon)

36. Petals white to pink or purple; inflorescence an umbel ..... GERANIACEAE (2)

36' Petals yellow; inflorescence a cyme ..... LINACEAE (Sclerolinon)

35' Leaves entire

37. Stamens opposite petals — petals actually fused but easily misinterpreted as free ..... MYRSINACEAE {G19}

37' Stamens alternate petals or of different numbers

38. Sepals free or nearly so

39. Petals without fringed nectary pits ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (4) {G6,8,15}

39' Base or center of each petal with 2 fringed nectary pits (sometimes appearing as 1 due to overlapping fringes) — petals actually fused but easily misinterpreted as free ..... GENTIANACEAE (Swertia)

38' Sepals evidently fused above base

40. Style 1, unbranched ..... LYTHRACEAE (3) {G22}

40' Style or style branches >1

41. Leaf ± linear, acute ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (4) {G6,8,15}

41' Leaf oblong to obovate, obtuse, margin often curled under and leaf appearing narrower ..... FRANKENIACEAE (2)

34' Leaves alternate, sometimes all basal

42. Style 1, unbranched ..... LYTHRACEAE (3) {G22}

42' Styles, style branches, or sessile stigmas >= 2

43. Leaf linear, entire

44. Leaves cauline; flowers solitary or in racemes, panicles, or cymes ..... LINACEAE (2)

44' Leaves all basal; flowers in scapose heads ..... PLUMBAGINACEAE (Armeria)

43' Leaf wider, often toothed or lobed

45. Leaf covered with long, gland-tipped, insect-trapping hairs ..... DROSERACEAE

45' Leaf without insect-trapping hairs

46. Styles, style branches, or stigmas 2–4

47. Flowers solitary; stamens alternating with toothed or fringed staminodes; stigmas 4 ..... PARNASSIACEAE

47' Flowers 2–many; staminodes 0; stigmas 2–3

48. Annual; leaf veins pinnate or lateral veins obscure; hypanthium 0; ovary unlobed ..... LINACEAE (2)

48' Perennial herb; leaf veins ± palmate; hypanthium present; ovary generally 2–3-lobed distally ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (2) {G10,20,21}

46' Styles or style branches 5 or more

49. Filaments fused in tube around style; petals thread-like ..... MALVACEAE (Ayenia)

49' Filaments free or fused only at base; petals wider

50. Style elongating, forming a beak; fruit breaking into 5 one-seeded mericarps, each tipped with a coiled beak segment; flowers in umbels ..... GERANIACEAE (2)

50' Styles not elongating and forming a beak; fruit not breaking into mericarps; flowers in a raceme, cyme, or panicle-like inflorescence

51. Sepals free, ± green; fruit a capsule, 5- or 10-seeded; flowers in a raceme or cyme ..... LINACEAE (Linum)

51' Sepals fused, generally pink to blue; fruit indehiscent, 1-seeded; flowers in a panicle-like inflorescence ..... PLUMBAGINACEAE (Limonium)