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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 23

Group 23: Shrubs, trees, and woody vines; leaves simple; perianth in 2 whorls; petals 4 or more, free; stamens 2 × as many as petals or fewer; pistil 1, ovary superior

1. Leaves opposite or whorled

2. Leaves 2-lobed, resin-coated; flowers bright yellow; fruit covered with white, spreading hairs — desert shrub; leaf sometimes treated as compound with 2 leaflets fused at base ..... ZYGOPHYLLACEAE (Larrea)

2' Leaves entire or toothed to palmately lobed or divided; flower ± green or white to creamy yellow, blue, or purple; fruit not covered with white, spreading hairs

3. Leaves lobed or divided; fruit splitting into mericarps

4. Shrub <= 1 m; stigmas 5, on long, stiff style; ovary not winged; mericarps wingless, each tipped by a spirally coiled beak ..... GERANIACEAE (Pelargonium) (2) {G24}

4' Tree or large shrub; stigmas 2(3), ± sessile; ovary 2(3)-winged; mericarps winged, beaks 0 ..... SAPINDACEAE (Acer) {G7,12}

3' Leaves entire or toothed; fruit a capsule or drupe

5. Leaves ± fleshy, salt encrusted, generally < 1 mm wide, united across node by a sheath ..... FRANKENIACEAE (Frankenia palmeri)

5' Leaves generally thin or leathery, not salt encrusted, generally >= 2 mm wide, not united by a sheath

6. Stamens > in number than petals ..... RUTACEAE (Cneoridium)

6' Stamens = in number to petals

7. Petals opposite stamens, generally ± cupped ..... RHAMNACEAE {G12,21}

7' Petals alternate stamens, generally ± flat

8. Leaves opposite ..... CELASTRACEAE

8' Leaves ± whorled at some nodes, alternate at others ..... PITTOSPORACEAE

1' Leaves alternate, sometimes reduced to minute scales or so quickly deciduous that the plants are generally leafless

9. Leaves lobed

10. Tendrils present; plant a woody vine, generally trailing or climbing on other plants

11. Flowers solitary, large and showy ..... PASSIFLORACEAE

11' Flowers in panicles, small and inconspicuous ..... VITACEAE (Vitis) {G7,9,12}

10' Tendrils 0; plant ± erect, not climbing

12. Inflorescence a panicle; flowers radial; 2–4 mm diam; fruit a drupe ..... ANACARDIACEAE (Rhus aromatica)

12' Inflorescence an umbel; flowers ± bilateral, 15–40 mm wide; fruit splitting into 5 mericarps ..... GERANIACEAE (Pelargonium) (2) {G24}

9' Leaves entire or toothed, unlobed

13. Leaf palmately veined, the blade well developed

14. Flowers strongly bilateral ..... FABACEAE (Cercis)

14' Flowers radial ..... RHAMNACEAE (Ceanothus)

13' Leaf pinnately veined, 1-veined, or reduced to a bladeless scale

15. Flowers strongly bilateral

16. Stamens 4, all inserted on 1 side of ovary, free or nearly so; sepals rose-purple, petal-like, widely spreading; upper 3 petals similar, stalked, free or fused, lower 2 petals reduced to fleshy scales or glands; fruit an indehiscent pod bearing slender, barb-tipped prickles ..... KRAMERIACEAE

16' Stamens 6–8 or 10, all filaments or 9 of 10 fused into a tube around the ovary [tube often open on 1 side]; sepals variously colored, sometimes petal-like; no petals reduced to fleshy scales or glands; fruit a capsule, legume, or unarmed, indehiscent pod

17. Sepals all fused, at least at base, forming a cup-shaped to cylindric calyx tube, generally not petal-like; the odd petal [banner] uppermost, overlapping the margins of the 2 upper lateral petals; lower 2 lateral petals generally free at base but fused toward the tip, forming a keel that encloses stamens and ovary; fruit a legume or indehiscent pod ..... FABACEAE (Papilionoideae)

17' Sepals free, petal-like, 2 of them spreading and very different from the other 3; the odd petal lowermost, often appendaged, folded and forming a keel enclosing stamens and ovary, a banner petal never present; fruit a flattened capsule ..... POLYGALACEAE {G15,18,22,24}

15' Flowers radial or nearly so

18. Stamens > in number than petals (sterile stamens as many as petals in pistillate flowers of Castela (Simaroubaceae))

19. Petals dark blue-purple; stems and leaves gland-dotted, very strongly scented ..... RUTACEAE (Thamnosma)

19' Petals white to yellow or green; stems and leaves not scented

20. Hypanthium present, well developed, tubular or cup-shaped ..... ROSACEAE {G10,15,21,22}

20' Hypanthium 0 or small and disk-shaped

21. Anthers opening by small round pores; petals 5; stem not thorn-tipped; moist sites ..... ERICACEAE (Rhododendron columbianum)

21' Anthers opening along sides by long slits; petals 4–6; stems (except Glossopetalon pungens) generally thorn-tipped; arid sites

22. Flowers unisexual; ovary deeply 4–8-lobed ..... SIMAROUBACEAE (Castela) {G7,9,10}

22' Flowers bisexual; ovary unlobed

23. Petals generally 5; ovary sessile on receptacle, chamber 1; stem angled; leaves oblong or narrowly elliptic to obovate, deciduous or ± persistent; fruit a follicle ..... CROSSOSOMATACEAE (Glossopetalon) (2)

23' Petals 4; ovary raised ± 1 mm above receptacle on short stalk, chambers 2; stem smooth; leaves scale-like, soon deciduous; fruit a berry ..... KOEBERLINIACEAE

18' Stamens = in number to petals

24. Leaves all reduced to bladeless scales; twigs very slender, jointed, green ..... TAMARICACEAE

24' Leaves with expanded blades, linear to (ob)ovate, sometimes early deciduous; twigs not jointed, green or brown

25. Stamens opposite petals; petals generally with cupped blade ..... RHAMNACEAE (2) {G12,21}

25' Stamens alternate petals; petals generally flat

26. Leaves 6–17 mm

27. Flowers many in tight, leafy-bracted panicle; ovary chambers 5 ..... CELASTRACEAE (Mortonia)

27' Flowers solitary, axillary; ovary chamber 1 ..... CROSSOSOMATACEAE (Glossopetalon) (2)

26' Leaves 15–150 mm

28. Petals 8–15 mm ..... PITTOSPORACEAE (2) {G9}

28' Petals 1.5–3 mm

29. Leaves 20–80 mm wide, elliptic to ovate; flowers many in terminal panicle ..... ANACARDIACEAE {G7,9,20}

29' Leaves 5–10 mm wide, ± lanceolate; flowers 1–few, axillary ..... CELASTRACEAE (Maytenus)