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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 21

Group 21: Leaves simple; perianth in 2 or more whorls or spirals; petals 4 or more, free; pistil 1, ovary inferior

1. Stamens > 2 × as many as petals or > 15

2. Style 1

3. Stem fleshy, spiny (in some Opuntia species only with glochids); sepals and petals indefinite in number and not sharply differentiated, in spirals ..... CACTACEAE {G17}

3' Stem not fleshy, generally not spiny; sepals and petals each 3–7, clearly differentiated, in whorls

4. Herb or subshrub with rough, barbed, or stinging hairs ..... LOASACEAE

4' Tree or shrub lacking such hairs

5. Ovary only 1/2 inferior, the free portion conic, especially in fruit ..... HYDRANGEACEAE (Carpenteria) {G16,22}

5' Ovary ± wholly inferior, the free portion, if any, rounded

6. Leaf generally dotted with embedded oil glands, often strongly scented when crushed; ovary chambers generally 2–5, all at 1 level; flowers variously colored ..... MYRTACEAE

6' Leaf not gland-dotted, not strongly scented; ovary chambers generally 5 or more, some at different levels in the ovary; flowers bright red-orange to pale yellow ..... LYTHRACEAE (Punica)

2' Styles or sessile stigmas > 1, sometimes partly fused at base

7. Shrub or tree, woody throughout, not fleshy; petals generally 4–5

8. Leaves opposite; fruit a capsule ..... HYDRANGEACEAE (Philadelphus)

8' Leaves alternate; fruit a pome ..... ROSACEAE (2) {G10,15,22,23}

7' Herb or plant woody only at base, generally ± fleshy; petals 4–many

9. Plant aquatic; leaf blades and flowers floating at water surface ..... NYMPHAEACEAE (Nymphaea)

9' Plant terrestrial; leaves and flowers not floating

10. Sepals 4–8; petals many ..... AIZOACEAE {G14,15,17}

10' Sepals 2; petals 5 ..... PORTULACACEAE (2)

1' Stamens 2 × as many as petals or fewer

11. Stamens opposite and = in number to petals

12. Shrub or tree ..... RHAMNACEAE {G12,23}

12' Herb — petals actually slightly fused at base, easily misinterpreted as free ..... THEOPHRASTACEAE {G17}

11' Stamens alternate petals or different in number

13. Style 1, sometimes distally branched

14. Plant a tendril-bearing vine; flowers unisexual, plant monoecious — corolla sometimes so deeply divided that petals appear to be free ..... CUCURBITACEAE {G6,8,14,17}

14' Plant not tendril-bearing; flowers generally bisexual

15. Ovules > 1 per chamber

16. Herb (subshrub) ..... ONAGRACEAE {G5}

16' Shrub

17. Stamens (4)5, free; leaves ovate or obovate to round, generally palmately 3–5-lobed, generally toothed; glands stalked or 0 ..... GROSSULARIACEAE (2)

17' Stamens 10, fused in ring with staminodes; leaves linear needle-like, entire, opposite; glands embedded in leaves ..... MYRTACEAE ([Chamelaucium])

15' Ovule 1 per chamber or perennial herb ovary

18. Leaves alternate

19. Plant a non-desert, sprawling, woody vine (flower stems ± erect); leaves smooth, dark green, often palmately lobed; inflorescence a cluster of umbels; fruit a berry ..... ARALIACEAE (Hedera)

19' Plant a low-desert perennial herb; leaves generally scabrous, pale green, unlobed; inflorescence ± a raceme; fruit an achene ..... LOASACEAE (Petalonyx)

18' Leaves opposite; sepals and petals 4(5)

20. Perennial herb to tree; inflorescence an umbel, head, or cyme; fruit a drupe ..... CORNACEAE

20' Annual; inflorescence a spike or spike-like raceme; fruit indehiscent, nut-like ..... ONAGRACEAE (Clarkia heterandra)

13' Styles > 1

21. Seeds 1–2 per chamber

22. Inflorescences of umbels or heads (spike in Hydrocotyle verticillata)

23. Leaves various [if round-reniform, plant terrestrial], glabrous or hairy; inflorescence generally compound umbel (occasionally simple umbel, head) ..... APIACEAE {G2,6,8,14,20}

23' Leaves round-peltate or -reniform, glabrous; plant aquatic with stolons or rhizomes, floating or rooted in shallow water or on mud; inflorescence simple umbel or spike ..... ARALIACEAE (Hydrocotyle) {G2,14}

22' Inflorescences various but not of umbels, heads, or spikes

24. Leaves alternate; hypanthium well developed; fruit a pome ..... ROSACEAE (2) {G10,15,22,23}

24' Leaves opposite; hypanthium very short or 0; fruit a capsule ..... HYDRANGEACEAE {G24}

21' Seeds generally several–many per chamber

25. Sepals 2; leaves fleshy ..... PORTULACACEAE (2)

25' Sepals 4–5; leaves generally not fleshy

26. Herb ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE {G10,20,24}

26' Shrub

27. Stamens 4–5 ..... GROSSULARIACEAE (2)

27' Stamens 10 ..... HYDRANGEACEAE (Jamesia)