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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 19

Group 19: Perianth in 2 whorls; petals 4 or more, all fused, corolla radial; pistil 1, ovary superior

1. Stamens > in number than corolla lobes

2. Filaments fused proximally, forming a cup or tube

3. Leaves compound

4. Shrub or tree; leaves 2-pinnate; fruit a legume; stamens many, much more conspicuous than corolla ..... FABACEAE (Mimosoideae)

4' Herb; leaves palmate with 3 leaflets; fruit a capsule; stamens 10, less conspicuous than corolla ..... OXALIDACEAE {G20}

3' Leaves simple

5. Stamens many; filaments strongly fused, forming tube around pistil; anthers crescent-shaped, chamber 1; style 1, distally branched or styles 5–many, stigmas linear to head-like — petals generally free from each other but fused to and falling with filament tube ..... MALVACEAE {G8,20,22}

5' Stamens 10(16); filaments fused at base; anthers oblong, 2-chambered; style 1, stigma dot-like or minutely lobed ..... STYRACACEAE {G17}

2' Filaments free

6. Flower parts in 6s; fruit a triangular achene — 6-parted perianth easily mistaken for corolla, especially in plants with 1–few-flowered, calyx-like involucre ..... POLYGONACEAE (3) {G2,6,8,15,16}

6' Flower parts in 4s or 5s; fruit a capsule, berry, drupe, or cluster of follicles

7. Plant fleshy

8. Plant photosynthetic; leaves well developed, green; carpels fused only at base, styles 5 ..... CRASSULACEAE {G10}

8' Plant non-photosynthetic; leaves scale-like, white to cream or red; carpels wholly fused, style 1 ..... ERICACEAE (2) {G17,18,24}

7' Plant not fleshy

9. Stem spineless; corolla urn-shaped to rotate or widely funnel-shaped, variously colored ..... ERICACEAE (2) {G17,18,24}

9' Stem bearing a stout, petiolar spine at each node; corolla tubular, bright red ..... FOUQUIERIACEAE

1' Stamens = in number to corolla lobes or fewer

10. Fertile stamens fewer than corolla lobes — 1 or more sterile stamens sometimes present

11. Perianth parts in 6s; stigmas and style branches 3 — 6-parted perianth easily mistaken for corolla in plant with 1-flowered, calyx-like involucre ..... POLYGONACEAE (3) {G2,6,8,15,16}

11' Perianth parts in 4s or 5s; stigmas 1 or 2, style unbranched or branches 2

12. Ovary deeply 4-lobed; style attachment surrounded by lobes of ovary [style readily detaches as corolla falls] — fruit 4 nutlets ..... LAMIACEAE (2) {G8,18}

12' Ovary entire or ± shallowly lobed; style arising from tip of ovary

13. Ovules several to many per ovary chamber

14. Leaves all basal; inflorescence scapose, flowers solitary — leaves linear or awl-shaped to spoon-shaped or ovate, entire ..... SCROPHULARIACEAE (Limosella) {G2,18}

14' Leaves basal and cauline or all cauline; inflorescence not scapose, flowers 1–many

15. Stigma lobes flat, disk-like, moving together when touched ..... PHRYMACEAE {G2,18}

15' Stigma dot-like or head-like, unlobed, or lobes not moving together when touched ..... PLANTAGINACEAE {G5,18}

13' Ovules 1–4 per ovary chamber

16. Corolla-like calyx constricted above ovary, base persistent around ovary, becoming hardened or winged at maturity; stigma, ovary chamber, and ovule 1; fruit an achene — corolla-like calyx easily mistaken for corolla, especially in plant with 1-flowered, calyx-like involucre ..... NYCTAGINACEAE (2) {G5,14,15,17}

16' True corolla present, not constricted above ovary, base not persistent as hardened or winged structure around ovary; stigmas, ovary chambers, and ovules > 1; fruit various

17. Stamens 2 ..... OLEACEAE

17' Stamens 4

18. Leaves gland-dotted; shrub or small tree ..... SCROPHULARIACEAE (Myoporum)

18' Leaves not gland-dotted though sometimes glandular-hairy ..... VERBENACEAE {G18}

10' Fertile stamens = in number to corolla lobes

19. Plants entirely non-green, parasitic

20. Plant an erect or mound-shaped, fleshy root-parasite with many crowded, scale-like leaves ..... BORAGINACEAE (Pholisma)

20' Plant a thread-like, leafless, yellow to orange, twining vine that wraps around stems and leaves of host plant ..... CONVOLVULACEAE (Cuscuta)

19' Plants green and photosynthetic

21. Ovaries 2, ± pressed together in flower but not fused, carpels distally united by a shared style or by a complex stigmatic structure; fruit of 1–2 follicles; milky latex generally present ..... APOCYNACEAE {G10}

21' Ovary 1, sometimes deeply lobed; fruits various; milky latex 0

22. Leaves whorled

23. Shrub — leaves evergreen, leathery; corolla throat with fringed appendages ..... APOCYNACEAE (Nerium)

23' Herb

24. Perennial herb, sometimes dying after flower; perianth parts in 4s; fruit a capsule ..... GENTIANACEAE (Frasera)

24' Annual; perianth parts in 6s; fruit an achene — 6-parted perianth easily mistaken for corolla, involucre 1-flowered, calyx-like ..... POLYGONACEAE (Chorizanthe)

22' Leaves alternate, opposite, or all basal

25. Corolla dry, scarious, 4-lobed; inflorescence a dense spike (rarely flower only 1); leaves generally all basal (opposite, appearing clustered at nodes in Plantago arenaria) ..... PLANTAGINACEAE (Plantago) (G5,8,18)

25' Corolla with normal, petal-like texture, 4–7-lobed; inflorescence various or flowers solitary; leaves basal and/or cauline

26. Ovary deeply 2–4-lobed, especially in fruit; style attachment surrounded by lobes of ovary (style readily detaches in Lamiaceae as corolla falls); fruit breaking apart into 1-seeded nutlets or segments (sometimes only 1–3 nutlets maturing)

27. Leaves opposite, at least proximally; stem 4-angled or round ×-section; stem and leaves sometimes aromatic

28. Stem round; leaves generally alternate distally or leaves of a pair unequal; herbage not aromatic; inflorescence or branches of inflorescence generally ± coiled or 1-sided when young, unrolling during development, at maturity ± open, generally resembling a 1-sided spike or raceme or flowers sometimes solitary ..... BORAGINACEAE (6) {G18}

28' Stem 4-angled; leaves opposite throughout; herbage generally strongly aromatic; inflorescence not coiled ..... LAMIACEAE (2) {G8,18}

27' Leaves alternate; stem ± round; stem and leaves generally not aromatic

29. Leaves linear to ovate; stems mostly not rooting; inflorescence or branches of inflorescence generally ± coiled or 1-sided when young, unrolling during development, at maturity ± open, generally resembling a 1-sided spike or raceme, flowers seldom concealed by leaves; ovary 2–4-lobed ..... BORAGINACEAE (6) {G18}

29' Leaves reniform; stems matted, rooting at nodes; flowers solitary, ± concealed by leaves; ovary 2-lobed ..... CONVOLVULACEAE (Dichondra) {G10}

26' Ovary entire or shallowly lobed; style clearly attached to tip of ovary; fruit generally a capsule, berry, drupe, or achene

30. Filaments fused, forming a tube around style

31. Shrub; flowers solitary, yellow or orange to ± red; stems and leaves densely stellate — corolla-like whorl actually a calyx, subtended by sepal-like bracts ..... MALVACEAE (Fremontodendron) {G12}

31' Herb; flowers in scapose umbels, white to pink or purple; stems and leaves glabrous or glandular-hairy ..... PRIMULACEAE (Primula)

30' Filaments generally free

32. Sepals 2; stems and leaves ± fleshy

33. Vine with twining stems; flowers in many-flowered raceme or panicle; fruit fleshy, indehiscent, 1-seeded ..... BASELLACEAE

33' Herb, stems prostrate to erect, not twining; flowers solitary or in few-flowered clusters; fruit dry, dehiscent, 2–many-seeded ..... MONTIACEAE {G22,24}

32' Sepals 4 or more; stems and leaves generally not fleshy

34. Perianth parts in 6s or 7s

35. Style and stigma 1; placentas free-central; ovules several–many; fruit a capsule ..... MYRSINACEAE (2) {G24}

35' Styles and stigmas 3; placentas basal; ovule 1; fruit a 3-angled achene — 6-parted perianth easily mistaken for corolla, especially in plant with 1-flowered, calyx-like involucre ..... POLYGONACEAE (3) {G2,6,8,15,16}

34' Perianth parts in 4s or 5s

36. Styles or style-branches 5; sepal tips and subtending bracts widely obtuse, scarious (sometimes brightly pigmented) or calyx stalked-glandular ..... PLUMBAGINACEAE

36' Styles, style-branches, or stigmas generally 1–3; sepal tips and bracts generally not widely obtuse and scarious, calyx glandular or not

37. Corolla-like calyx constricted above the ovary, persistent base becoming hardened or winged at maturity, enclosing fruit; ovary chamber 1, ovule 1; fruit an achene — corolla-like calyx easily mistaken for corolla, especially in plants with 1-flowered, calyx-like involucre ..... NYCTAGINACEAE (2) {G5,14,15,17}

37' True corolla present, generally not constricted above ovary, base not persistent as hardened or winged structure enclosing fruit; ovary chambers generally 1–4, ovules generally > 1; fruit various

38. Stamens opposite corolla lobes; placentas free-central

39. Flowers axillary or in racemes ..... MYRSINACEAE (2) {G24}

39' Flowers in scapose umbels ..... PRIMULACEAE

38' Stamens alternate corolla lobes; placentas parietal or axile (rarely basal)

40. Filaments of stamens not fused to corolla, sometimes adhering weakly to base of corolla but readily separable

41. Annual; corolla 5-lobed; leaves pinnately lobed ..... BORAGINACEAE (Emmenanthe)

41' Shrub; corolla 4-lobed; leaves entire ..... ERICACEAE (Menziesia)

40' Filaments of stamens definitely fused to corolla tube or throat, not separable without tearing stamen or corolla tissue

42. Inflorescence or branches of inflorescence generally ± coiled or 1-sided when young, unrolling during development, at maturity ± open, generally resembling a 1-sided spike or raceme ..... BORAGINACEAE (6) {G18}

42' Inflorescence not coiled and unrolling, generally not 1-sided

43. Calyx lobes generally bordered by or ± fused by a much thinner, transparent or translucent membrane; stigmas and ovary chambers generally 3 (1 or 2) ..... POLEMONIACEAE (2) {G18}

43' Calyx lobes generally without a transparent or translucent marginal membrane; stigmas generally 2 (1 or 3), ovary chambers generally 1 or 2

44. Stem twining ..... CONVOLVULACEAE (2)

44' Stem not twining

45. Leaves palmately compound — rhizomed per of bogs, marshes, lake margins ..... MENYANTHACEAE (Menyanthes)

45' Leaves simple to pinnately compound

46. Plant aquatic; leaves floating on water surface, deeply cordate; inflorescence an umbel or flower 1 ..... MENYANTHACEAE (Nymphoides) {G2}

46' Plant generally terrestrial, sometimes in damp soil; leaves not floating on water surface, shapes various; inflorescence not an umbel

47. Stigmas 3 ..... POLEMONIACEAE (2) {G18}

47' Stigmas 1–2

48. Leaves alternate or of unusual arrangement [in some Solanum species 2 leaves that are not opposite may be attached at the same node, and inflorescences may arise from internodes], not opposite or all basal

49. Stigma 1, generally undivided

50. Some or all stamens densely hairy; inflorescence a narrow raceme or panicle ..... SCROPHULARIACEAE (Verbascum) {G18}

50' Stamens glabrous or nearly so; inflorescence variously cyme-like, or flowers solitary ..... SOLANACEAE

49' Stigmas or stigma lobes 2

51. Style undivided

52. Corolla < 15 mm; flowers in axillary or terminal clusters, several to many per peduncle, not subtended by paired bracts; leaves lobed or compound, not cordate, sagittate, or hastate ..... BORAGINACEAE (6) {G18}

52' Corolla 20–70 mm; flowers generally 1(5) in leaf axils, often subtended by a pair of opposite or subopposite bracts appressed against the calyx or borne below the flower(s) on the peduncle; leaves often cordate, sagittate, or hastate ..... CONVOLVULACEAE (2)

51' Styles or style branches 2

53. Herbage glabrous or variously hairy and/or glandular; flowers solitary or clustered; leaves entire to lobed or compound ..... BORAGINACEAE (6) {G18}

53' Herbage densely silky-canescent; flowers solitary in distal leaf axils, ± on 1 side of stem; leaves entire ..... CONVOLVULACEAE (Cressa)

48' Leaves opposite or all basal

54. Corolla lobes 4

55. Herb ..... GENTIANACEAE (2) {G24}

55' Shrub

56. Corolla ± rotate, lobes ± leathery, ± green-white; coastal lagoons or salt marshes ..... ACANTHACEAE (Avicennia)

56' Corolla ± salverform, lobes thin, ± yellow or white to purple; generally dry places ..... SCROPHULARIACEAE (Buddleja) {G7,9}

54' Corolla lobes 5

57. Flowers solitary, inflorescence scapose ..... BORAGINACEAE (Hesperochiron)

57' Flowers 1–many, borne on a ± leafy stem

58. Leaves toothed, lobed, or compound ..... BORAGINACEAE (6) {G18}

58' Leaves entire

59. Plants glandular-hairy ..... SOLANACEAE (Petunia)

59' Plants glabrous or hairy, but not glandular

60. Stems spreading or mat-forming; stems and leaves densely strigose; flowers sessile or subsessile in forks of stem; leaves of a pair often unequal ..... BORAGINACEAE (Tiquilia) {G18}

60' Stems mostly erect or ascending; stems and leaves glabrous or short-hairy; flowers axillary or in terminal inflorescences; leaves of a pair equal ..... GENTIANACEAE (2) {G24}


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