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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 17

Group 17: Perianth in 2 or more whorls or spirals; petals 4 or more, fused; pistil 1, ovary ± inferior

1. Stamens > in number than corolla lobes or > 15

2. Plant spiny or bristly

3. Stem very fleshy, generally spiny (in some Opuntia species only with glochids); leaves 0 or conic to cylindric, fleshy; petal-like parts many, overlapping in several series ..... CACTACEAE {G21}

3' Stem not or slightly fleshy, bristly with stinging hairs; leaves well developed, with expanded blade; petals 5, in 1 series ..... LOASACEAE (Eucnide)

2' Plant glabrous or ± hairy but not spiny or bristly

4. Petals or petal-like stamens many; leaves generally fleshy ..... AIZOACEAE {G14,15,21}

4' Petals 4 or 5, petal-like stamens 0; leaves generally thin

5. Herbage glabrous to soft-hairy, sometimes glandular ..... ERICACEAE {G18,19,24}

5' Herbage stellate-hairy ..... STYRACACEAE {G19}

1' Stamens = in number to corolla lobes or fewer, generally <= 5

6. Ovary actually superior, surrounded by but not fused to hardened or winged base of corolla-like calyx that simulates an inferior ovary; style passing through constriction separating calyx base from petal-like portion and joining to top of ovary ..... NYCTAGINACEAE {G5,14,15,19}

6' Ovary truly inferior, fused to bases of surrounding flower parts; style not passing through a calyx constriction

7. Leaves alternate or all basal

8. Tendrils generally present; flowers unisexual — plant generally monoecious, leaves palmately veined, generally palmately lobed ..... CUCURBITACEAE {G6,8,14,21}

8' Tendrils 0; flowers bisexual or unisexual

9. Inflorescence a head subtended or ± enclosed by involucre; calyx modified as pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns, not green and leaf-like ..... ASTERACEAE (2) {G6,7,8,9,12,14}

9' Inflorescence various but not a head; calyx of unmodified sepals, generally green

10. Stamens alternate corolla lobes; staminodes 0; flowers radial or bilateral; placentas axile or parietal ..... CAMPANULACEAE {G2,5,14}

10' Stamens opposite corolla lobes; staminodes alternate fertile stamens; flowers radial; placentas free-central ..... THEOPHRASTACEAE {G21}

7' Leaves opposite or whorled

11. Inflorescence a peduncled pair of flowers — creeping subshrub, twining vine, or erect shrub

12. Flowers sessile; fruits berries, sometimes fused ..... CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Lonicera)

12' Flowers on slender pedicels; fruits capsules, not fused ..... LINNAEACEAE

11' Inflorescence a head, spike, or cyme, or flowers solitary

13. Inflorescence a head or dense, head-like spike, subtended or ± enclosed by ± calyx-like involucre

14. Anthers fused into tube around style ..... ASTERACEAE (2) {G6,7,8,9,12,14}

14' Anthers free

15. Leaves opposite ..... DIPSACACEAE

15' Leaves whorled ..... RUBIACEAE (Sherardia)

13' Inflorescence various, not subtended or enclosed by ± calyx-like involucre

16. Herb or subshrub

17. Stamens 4 or 5; corolla radial, not spurred or with proximal bulge ..... RUBIACEAE (2) {G14}

17' Stamens 1 or 3; corolla often bilateral, often spurred or with proximal bulge ..... VALERIANACEAE {G14}

16' Shrub, tree, or woody vine

18. Inflorescence a raceme or ± interrupted spike or flowers 1–2 in axils ..... CAPRIFOLIACEAE

18' Inflorescence a head or compound cyme

19. Leaves compound ..... ADOXACEAE (Sambucus)

19' Leaves simple

20. Leaves 3–5-veined from base ..... ADOXACEAE (Viburnum)

20' Leaves 1-veined from base ..... RUBIACEAE (2) {G14}