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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 16

Group 16: Perianth parts in 2 or more whorls, parts 2 or 3 per whorl; pistil 1

1. Ovary fully inferior

2. Leaf parallel veined

3. Leaves fleshy, toothed, spine-tipped ..... AGAVACEAE (Agave)

3' Leaves not fleshy, entire, not spine-tipped

4. Fertile stamens 1–2, filament(s) and anther(s) wholly fused above ovary to stigma and style, forming a column; ovary with a half twist; ovules many, microscopic; seeds dust-like ..... ORCHIDACEAE

4' Fertile stamens 3 or more, not fused to stigma and style; ovary straight; ovules not microscopic; seeds well developed

5. Stamens 6; leaves not 2-ranked and folded (0 at flower in Amaryllis); adaxial and abaxial faces both visible ..... AMARYLLIDACEAE

5' Stamens 3; leaves 2-ranked, generally folded lengthwise and apparently attached "edge-on", only abaxial face of leaf visible ..... IRIDACEAE

2' Leaf pinnately or palmately veined

6. Leaves basal, palmately veined and lobed, prickly — petiole 1–1.5 m, blade 1–2+ m ..... GUNNERACEAE {G14}

6' Leaves cauline, pinnately veined, entire or toothed, smooth

7. Leaves opposite; petals 2, 1–1.5 mm, white; fruit indehiscent, with hooked hairs ..... ONAGRACEAE (Circaea)

7' Leaves alternate; petals 3, yellow; fruit dehiscent, without hooked hairs

8. Petals 0.8–2.3 mm; leaves narrowly oblanceolate, 1–3 cm ..... ONAGRACEAE (Neoholmgrenia)

8' Petals >= 30 mm; leaves ± elliptic, 20–55 cm ..... ZINGIBERACEAE

1' Ovary superior or partially inferior

9. Stem nodes with small, dry, sometimes spiny-spurred, scale-like leaves that subtend 1–20 thread-like, needle-like, or ovate, leaf-like branchlets — erect to sprawling herb, sub-shrub, or twining vine ..... ASPARAGACEAE

9' Stem nodes without small, dry, scale-like leaves that subtend leaf-like branches

10. Leaves needle-like, abaxially grooved; low shrub ..... ERICACEAE (Empetrum) {G7,9,12}

10' Leaves generally not needle-like, generally not abaxially grooved; herb to tree

11. Plant submersed aquatic; leaves very thin, 1-veined, opposite or whorled; flowers generally unisexual ..... HYDROCHARITACEAE (2) {G2,6,8}

11' Plant terrestrial, or if aquatic, leaves not very thin, 1-veined, and opposite or whorled

12. Leaf venation pinnate or palmate, smaller veins generally forming a network (occasionally only midvein evident)

13. Tendrils present; vine; leaves ovate — flowers unisexual; plants dioecious ..... SMILACACEAE {G6,7,8,9}

13' Tendrils 0; herb, shrub, or tree (occasionally vine with twining stem); leaves various

14. Leaves compound or deeply lobed

15. Herb

16. Perennial herb; leaves basal, 2–3-ternate; petals in 2 tight whorls of 3; sepals in 4–5 whorls of 3 ..... BERBERIDACEAE (Vancouveria) {G20}

16' Annual; leaves cauline, 1-ternate or 1-odd-pinnate; petals 3; sepals 3 ..... LIMNANTHACEAE (Floerkea) {G10}

15' Shrub or tree

17. Trunk stout, unbranched, crowned by a tight terminal rosette of very large leaves ..... ARECACEAE

17' Trunk(s) branched, with leaves < 50 cm, distributed on twigs

18. Leaves alternate; leaflets spiny-toothed; fruit berry ..... BERBERIDACEAE (Berberis) {G20}

18' Leaves opposite; leaflets serrate; fruit winged achene ..... OLEACEAE (Fraxinus) {G7,9,12}

14' Leaves simple

19. Plant woody

20. Stamens many ..... HYDRANGEACEAE (Carpenteria) {G21, 22}

20' Stamens 2–9

21. Leaf blade gland-dotted, aromatic; anthers dehiscing by uplifted lids; fruit fleshy ..... LAURACEAE {G12}

21' Leaf blade not gland-dotted, not aromatic; anthers dehiscing by slits; fruit dry

22. Inner perianth parts 2, petal-like, outer minutely 4-lobed, ± green; fruit winged, 22–30 mm ..... OLEACEAE (Fraxinus parryi)

22' Inner and outer perianth parts in 3s, all petal-like; fruit 3-angled achene, < 5 mm ..... POLYGONACEAE (2) {G2,6,8,15,19}

19' Plant herbaceous

23. Flower bilateral, proximal portion of calyx with a protruding, hollow spur ..... BALSAMINACEAE {G24}

23' Flower radial, calyx without a spur

24. Cauline leaves in a whorl of 3 subtending 1 large terminal flower ..... MELANTHIACEAE (2) {G10}

24' Cauline leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, sometimes reduced to bracts; flowers >> 1, small

25. Fruit achene, (2)3-angled — inner and outer perianth generally similar, both whorls petal-like or both sepal-like (inner perianth parts much enlarged in fruit in Rumex) ..... POLYGONACEAE (2) {G2,6,8,15,19}

25' Fruit capsule

26. Leaves not fleshy; plant ± aquatic; flowers axillary; outer perianth parts 2–3, ± = inner; stigmas 3; seeds many, surface net-like, brown to yellow-brown ..... ELATINACEAE (Elatine)

26' Leaves fleshy; plant terrestrial; flowers in ± 1-sided raceme-, panicle-, or umbel-like cluster; outer perianth parts 2, > inner; stigmas 2; seeds 1–many, shiny, black ..... MONTIACEAE (Calyptridium) {G24}

12' Leaf venation parallel, sometimes in wider leaves several larger veins originating from leaf base but smaller veins parallel to them and not forming a network

27. Shrub, tree, or densely leafy rosette plant; leaves ± sword-like or ± grass-like, fibrous and/or fleshy, persisting > 1 year

28' Ovules 2 per chamber

29. Flowers bisexual; fruit a berry ..... LAXMANNIACEAE

29' Flowers generally unisexual (occasionally some bisexual); fruit a papery capsule ..... RUSCACEAE (Nolina) {G6,7,8,9}

28. Ovules 3–many per chamber

30. Perianth orange or red ..... ASPHODELACEAE

30' Perianth ± white

31. Leaves sword-like; style 1 or stigmas sessile ..... AGAVACEAE (2)

31' Leaves grass-like; styles 3 ..... MELANTHIACEAE (Xerophyllum)

27' Herb; leaves generally thin, generally not persisting (sometimes ± cylindric)

32. Sepals and petals clearly different

33. Plant aquatic, plant body submersed or leaves floating to emergent ..... HYDROCHARITACEAE (2) {G2,6,8}

33' Plant terrestrial

34. Above-ground stem 0, leaves 2–3(4), all basal; sepals much wider than narrowly linear petals; stamens 3; pedicels twisted, recurved in age; fruit touching soil ..... LILIACEAE (Scoliopus)

34' Above-ground stem well developed, ± leafy; sepals much narrower than reniform to generally widely ovate petals; stamens 6, sometimes 3 sterile; pedicels not recurved in age; fruit not touching soil

35. Petals glabrous, withering after 1 day; ovary ± spheric; seeds few ..... COMMELINACEAE

35' Petals hairy, generally persistent several days; ovary ± cylindric; seeds many ..... LILIACEAE (Calochortus)

32' Sepals and petals very similar

36. Perianth parts scale-like, green to brown or ± purple-black or tinged ± red-purple

37. Inflorescence of 1–many flowers, variously clustered, subtended individually and/or in small groups by bracts; style 1, stigmas 2–3, slender, spreading; fruit a capsule ..... JUNCACEAE {G13}

37' Inflorescence a bractless raceme; stigmas 3 or 6, ± sessile; fruit breaking into mericarps ..... JUNCAGINACEAE {G2,10,13}

36' Perianth parts petal-like, generally not green to brown or ± purple-black or tinged ± red-purple

38. Inflorescence an umbel (rarely flower solitary or in short, dense raceme); leaves all basal, arising from bulb or corm

39. Fruit a berry ..... LILIACEAE (Clintonia)

39' Fruit a capsule

40. Plant with onion odor; inflorescence bracts 2 (sometimes fused), wholly enclosing immature inflorescence, but generally not formed among pedicels; stems and leaves arising from bulb ..... ALLIACEAE {G1}

40' Plant without onion odor; inflorescence bracts 3 or more, not wholly enclosing immature inflorescence, and some formed among pedicels; stems and leaves arising from corm ..... THEMIDACEAE

38' Inflorescence various, often a raceme or panicle, if flowers in umbels stem ± leafy or with scale-like bracts; leaves basal and/or cauline, underground parts various

41. Perianth parts proximally ± fused into tube

42. Plant aquatic, floating on water surface, stranded on mud, or rooting in bottom sediments; flowers generally open only 1 day ..... PONTEDERIACEAE

42' Plant generally terrestrial, sometimes in damp soil; flowers generally open > 1 day

43. Ovary underground; perianth tube long, stalk-like ..... AGAVACEAE (Leucocrinum)

43' Ovary above-ground; perianth tube not stalk-like

44. Perianth red (yellow) ..... ASPHODELACEAE (Kniphofia)

44' Perianth white to ± yellow

45. Perianth 45–60 mm; leaves strongly wavy-margined ..... AGAVACEAE (Hesperocallis)

45' Perianth 8–12 mm; leaves not wavy-margined ..... TECOPHILAEACEAE

41' Perianth parts free or nearly so

46. Leaves mostly or all cauline

47. Styles 3; flowers bisexual or staminate ..... MELANTHIACEAE (Veratrum) {G6}

47' Style 1 or stigmas sessile; flowers bisexual

48. Perianth 8–110+ mm ..... LILIACEAE (3)

48' Perianth 1–7 mm ..... RUSCACEAE (Maianthemum) {G15}

46' Leaves all basal or basal and cauline

49. All or some filaments densely hairy

50. Inner 3 filaments hairy ..... ASPHODELACEAE ([Bulbine])

50' All filaments hairy ..... NARTHECIACEAE

49' Filaments glabrous (or expanded filament base puberulent)

51. Styles 3

52. Stem glabrous ..... MELANTHIACEAE (2) {G10}

52' Stem glandular ..... TOFIELDIACEAE

51' Style 1 or 0 and stigmas sessile

53. Cauline leaves present, ± well developed ..... LILIACEAE (3)

53' Cauline leaves 0 or reduced to linear or scale-like bracts

54. Leaf lanceolate or ovate to elliptic or obovate ..... LILIACEAE (3)

54' Leaf linear

55. Leaves ± flat, often keeled or wavy-margined; stem generally 1 from bulb ..... AGAVACEAE (2)

55' Leaves ± cylindric, hollow; stems several–many from tuber-like rhizome ..... ASPHODELACEAE (Asphodelus)

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