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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 15

Group 15: Herbs, subshrubs, or herbaceous vines; leaf venation generally pinnate or palmate; perianth in 1 whorl or 0; pistil 1, ovary superior

1. Leaves opposite or whorled

2. Plant aquatic, weak-stemmed; submersed, floating, or stranded on mud

3. Leaves opposite; ovary lobed or unlobed; seeds 4–many

4. Ovary unlobed, many-seeded ..... LYTHRACEAE (Lythrum portula)

4' Ovary 2- or 4-lobed, 4-seeded ..... PLANTAGINACEAE (Callitriche) {G2,8}

3' Leaves whorled; ovary unlobed; seed 1

5. Leaves dissected into narrow lobes ..... CERATOPHYLLACEAE {G2,6,8,14}

5' Leaves entire ..... PLANTAGINACEAE (Hippuris) {G2,14}

2' Plant terrestrial, sometimes in damp soil, or in areas flooded at high tide

6. Ovary chambers 2 or more (doubtful cases should be keyed both ways)

7. Flowers unisexual

8. Style 0, stigma sessile; leaves ± cylindric or 3-angled in ×-section, fleshy; milky latex 0; plants of coastal salt-marshes ..... BATACEAE {G6,8,24}

8' Styles or stigmas 2–3, free; leaves thin; milky latex present or 0; plants of various habitats but not salt marsh ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (3) {G7,9}

7' Flowers bisexual

9. Leaves opposite, equal; fruit circumscissile — 1/2-inferior ovary may appear superior ..... AIZOACEAE (Sesuvium)

9' Leaves whorled, often unequal; fruit loculicidal ..... MOLLUGINACEAE

6' Ovary chamber 1

10. Ovules 2–many; fruit a capsule

11. Perianth parts 6(8) — sepals actually present in bud, but early-deciduous, 0 in open flower ..... PAPAVERACEAE (2) (Papaveroideae) {G12,20,22,24}

11' Perianth parts (4)5

12. Sepals free; flowers generally in cymes ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (2) {G6,8,24}

12' Sepals fused; flowers solitary in leaf axils

13. Leaves of a pair unequal; stipules present; fruit circumscissile ..... AIZOACEAE {G14,17,21}

13' Leaves of a pair equal; stipules 0; fruit 5-valved ..... MYRSINACEAE (Lysimachia maritima)

10' Ovule 1; fruit an achene, 1-seeded capsule, or utricle

14. Style 1, undivided or stigma 1, sessile

15. Sepals petal-like, fused into a tube; leaves entire or slightly lobed, stinging hairs 0 ..... NYCTAGINACEAE {G5,14,17,19}

15' Sepals green, small, inconspicuous; leaves toothed or entire, sometimes with stinging hairs

16. Herbage densely covered with branched hairs ..... AMARANTHACEAE (Tidestromia) (2)

16' Herbage glabrous or ± hairy, hairs not branched (stinging hairs present in Hesperocnide, Urtica) ..... URTICACEAE (2) {G6,8}

14' Styles or style branches 2 or more

17. Leaves palmately compound or deeply lobed ..... CANNABACEAE {G6,8}

17' Leaves simple, entire or toothed

18. Fruit a 3-angled achene; perianth parts 6 [actually in 2 whorls of 3, but this may not be evident in open flowers] ..... POLYGONACEAE (3) {G2,6,8,16,19}

18' Fruit not 3-angled; perianth parts <= 5

19. Leaves with stipules

20. Leaves petioled, fleshy; fruit a circumscissile capsule ..... AIZOACEAE (Trianthema)

20' Leaves sessile, not fleshy; fruit 1-seeded, indehiscent ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (2) {G6,8,24}

19' Leaves without stipules

21. Leaves reduced to fleshy scales; inflorescence a fleshy spike ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (3) {G6,7,8,9,11}

21' Leaves linear to ovate; inflorescences various or flowers solitary

22. Sepals erect, linear, fused below and hardened around ovary; stamens fused to calyx; slender annual, generally <= 15 cm; leaves narrowly linear, <= 15 mm ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (Scleranthus) {G14}

22' Sepals erect or spreading, free, not hardened around ovary (sepals generally 0 in pistillate flowers of Atriplex, which has a pair of ± hardened bractlets around fruit); stamens free from calyx; plants often larger, annual or perennial herb; leaves various

23. Bracts subtending flowers dry, scarious; plants neither fleshy nor with powdery or beaded surface; habitats generally not saline ..... AMARANTHACEAE (2)

23' Bracts subtending flowers leaf-like or fleshy; plants often fleshy or with powdery or beaded surface; habitats often ± saline

24. Sepals pink or white, papery; plant from rhizome ..... AMARANTHACEAE (Nitrophila)

24' Sepals green or ± red-tinged, herbaceous; rhizome 0 ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (3) {G6,7,8,9,11}

1' Leaves alternate or all basal

25. Plant aquatic, raft-like, floating on water surface or stranded on shoreline — leaves in rosettes, wedge-shaped, sessile, velvety; flowers enclosed by small, sheathing bracts ..... ARACEAE ([Pistia]) {G2}

25' Plant terrestrial or rooted in shallow water

26. Inflorescence a ± fleshy spike enclosed by a large, basally sheathing, often petal-like bract; petiole stout ..... ARACEAE {G2,6,8,13}

26' Inflorescence various but not a fleshy spike subtended by a sheathing bract; leaves sessile or ± slender-petioled

27. Leaves with stipules, generally well developed

28. Style 1, unbranched, or stigma sessile

29. Ovule 1; fruit an achene ..... ROSACEAE {G10,20,21,22,23}

29' Ovules several to many; fruit a capsule — late season cleistogamous flowers formed in most Viola species ..... VIOLACEAE {G5,20,24}

28' Styles or stigmas 2 or more

30. Leaves palmately compound ..... CANNABACEAE (Cannabis) {G6,8}

30' Leaves simple, entire to lobed

31. Plant a vine, stems twining

32. Leaves toothed, at least the proximal also palmately lobed ..... CANNABACEAE (Humulus) {G6,8}

32' Leaves entire ..... POLYGONACEAE (Fallopia)

31' Plant prostrate to erect, stems not twining

33. Stipules fused into a membranous sheath [ocrea] around stem, the sheath sometimes torn or shredded as branches develop ..... POLYGONACEAE (3) {G2,6,8,16,19}

33' Stipules free, not fused around stem, not torn or shredded as branches develop

34. Annual; stems prostrate; stinging hairs 0; flowers bisexual ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (Herniaria)

34' Perennial herb; stems spreading to erect; stinging hairs present; flowers unisexual ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Tragia) {G6}

27' Leaves without stipules, sometimes reduced to scale-like bracts

35. Inflorescence flower-like with a cup-like involucre bearing 1–4(5) nectary glands that sometimes have flattened, white to ± pink, petal-like, marginal appendages — stamens [actually staminate flowers] each with a jointed stalk [composed of a filament and a pedicel], pistillate flower 1, generally exserted from involucre, ovary 3-lobed ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (3) {G7,9}

35' Inflorescence not flower-like or with a cup-like, nectary-gland-bearing involucre

36. Perianth parts 4 or 6, ± petal-like

37. Perianth parts 4 or 6, free; stigmas 1–many, generally sessile; fruit a capsule — sepals actually present in bud, but early-deciduous, 0 in open flower ..... PAPAVERACEAE (2) (Papaveroideae) {G12,20,22,24}

37' Perianth parts 6, proximally fused; stigmas 3, at tips of slender styles; fruit a 3-angled achene ..... POLYGONACEAE (3) {G2,6,8,16,19}

36' Perianth parts <= 5, sometimes 0, generally not petal-like

38. Leaves all basal, palmately compound; leaflets 3; perianth 0 ..... BERBERIDACEAE (Achlys)

38' Leaves cauline, simple; perianth generally present

39. Ovule 1; inflorescences various

40. Herbage ± densely covered with branched hairs

41. Flowers bisexual; hairs soft, irregularly branched, branches all short; fruit indehiscent — leaf arrangement variable, often difficult to interpret ..... AMARANTHACEAE (Tidestromia) (2)

41' Flowers unisexual; hairs harshly stellate, central branches often long, spreading, bristle-like; fruit dehiscent ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Croton setiger)

40' Herbage glabrous or ± hairy, hairs not branched

42. Stigma 1 ..... URTICACEAE (2) {G6,8}

42' Stigmas 2–4

43. Bracts subtending flowers scarious-margined or dry and scarious throughout ..... AMARANTHACEAE (2)

43' Bracts subtending flowers 0 or not scarious or scarious-margined ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (3) {G6,7,8,9,11}

39' Ovules 2–many; inflorescence generally a raceme (spike, axillary cluster)

44. Flowers unisexual ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (3) {G7,9}

44' Flowers bisexual

45. Plant red- and white-striped, non-photosynthetic, green pigment 0 ..... ERICACEAE (Allotropa)

45' Plant green and photosynthetic

46. Sepals 4 ..... BRASSICACEAE {G2,20,24}

46' Sepals 5

47. Stems ± erect, <= 3(7) m; leaf 6–36 cm; flowers many in spike or raceme; fruit a berry, chambers 5–12; perianth radial ..... PHYTOLACCACEAE

47' Stems ± decumbent, 0.5–3.5 dm; leaf <= 6 cm; flowers 1–few in raceme; fruit a capsule; chambers 2; perianth bilateral — some flowers often ± cleistogamous ..... POLYGALACEAE {G18,22,23,24}