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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 14

Group 14: Herbs or subshrubs; leaf venation generally pinnate or palmate; perianth 0 or in 1 whorl; ovary 1, inferior

1. Plant parasite on stem of woody host

2. Flowers of parasite emerging directly from stem of host, parasite otherwise growing within tissues of host; leaves 0; on Psorothamnus ..... APODANTHACEAE

2' Flowers of parasite borne in inflorescences on branches of parasite; leaves scale-like or with expanded blades; on various woody hosts [not Psorothamnus] ..... VISCACEAE {G6,7,8,9,11,12}

1' Plant free-living and rooted in ground or root-parasite

3. Leaf blade 1–2+ m, covered with prickles — perianth actually of 2 whorls but petals very small, easily overlooked ..... GUNNERACEAE {G16}

3' Leaf blade << 1 m, not prickly

4. Leaves [at least proximal] whorled, all cauline

5. Plant terrestrial ..... RUBIACEAE (2) {G17}

5' Plant ± aquatic

6. Leaves entire ..... PLANTAGINACEAE (Hippuris) {G2,15}

6' Leaves toothed to deeply divided

7. Leaves repeatedly forked ..... CERATOPHYLLACEAE {G2,6,8,15}

7' Leaves [at least submersed] pinnately divided ..... HALORAGACEAE {G2,6,8,20}

4' Leaves alternate or opposite (or sometimes some or all basal)

8. Inflorescence bracts large, petal-like; perianth 0 — inflorescence a flower-like spike ..... SAURURACEAE

8' Inflorescence bracts not at all petal-like; perianth present

9. Perianth parts free or nearly so

10. Leaves glabrous, round-peltate or -reniform; plant aquatic with stolons or rhizomes floating in shallow water or rooted in wet soil ..... ARALIACEAE (Hydrocotyle) {G2,21}

10' Leaves glabrous or hairy, leaf shape various; plant terrestrial if leaves round-reniform

11. Inflorescence a simple or compound umbel ..... APIACEAE {G2,6,8,20,21}

11' Inflorescence various or flowers solitary

12. Plant aquatic, floating, stranded on mud, or rooted in bottom sediments

13. Sepals, stamens 5; pedicel 1–4(8) mm; leaves alternate (sometimes ± opposite or whorled), blade linear ..... CAMPANULACEAE (Howellia)

13' Sepals, stamens 4; pedicel 0–0.5 mm; leaves opposite, blade narrowly elliptic to ± ovate ..... ONAGRACEAE (Ludwigia palustris)

12' Plant terrestrial or sometimes growing in damp soil

14. Leaves all basal ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (Heuchera cylindrica)

14' Leaves cauline, at least in part

15. Fruit an achene; sepals 3–5; leaves alternate, ± entire, petiole ± = blade ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (Beta)

15' Fruit a capsule or ± nut-like [hard, indehiscent, 3–9-seeded with 2–5-horns]; sepals 3–9; leaves alternate or opposite, entire to pinnately lobed, petiole often < blade

16. Perennial herb; stems erect; leaves generally unequally pinnately lobed; styles long, forked ..... DATISCACEAE {G6}

16' Annual; stems prostrate to erect; leaves entire or toothed; styles short, not forked

17. Styles 2–9; leaves ± fleshy, often ± papillate ..... AIZOACEAE {G15,17,21}

17' Style 1; leaves not fleshy, not papillate ..... CAMPANULACEAE {G2,5,17}

9' Perianth parts fused

18. Inflorescence of involucred heads or umbels

19. Ovary truly inferior; anthers fused around style or, if free, the flowers unisexual; stigma lobes 2 ..... ASTERACEAE {G6,7,8,9,12,17}

19' Ovary actually superior, but appearing inferior [tightly enclosed by perianth base]; anthers free; stigma unlobed ..... NYCTAGINACEAE (2) {G5,15,17,19}

18' Inflorescence not of involucred heads or umbels, flowers solitary or variously clustered

20. Flowers large, solitary, red to maroon or brown; perianth lobes 3 — leaves cordate to reniform, long-petioled ..... ARISTOLOCHIACEAE (Asarum)

20' Flowers generally ± small, generally clustered, not red to maroon or brown; perianth lobes (3)4–5(7)

21. Leaves alternate

22. Tendrils 0; leaves entire; flowers bisexual ..... COMANDRACEAE

22' Tendrils present; leaves palmately lobed; flowers unisexual ..... CUCURBITACEAE {G6,8,17,21}

21' Leaves opposite

23. Flowers bilateral ..... VALERIANACEAE {G17}

23' Flowers ± radial

24. Perianth lobes 5; ovary actually superior [tightly enwrapped by hardened or winged calyx base]; leaves of a pair equal or unequal

25. Calyx green, not at all corolla-like, very inconspicuous; sepals erect, free or nearly so above the level of the ovary, thickened and linear, erect; leaves narrowly linear, needle-like, generally 1–2 cm or shorter, generally those of a pair equal ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (Scleranthus) {G15}

25' Calyx corolla-like in color and texture, often very showy; sepals fused well above level of ovary, calyx lobes wide and thin, ± spreading; leaves linear to ovate, often > 2 cm, those of a pair often unequal ..... NYCTAGINACEAE (2) {G5,15,17,19}

24' Perianth lobes 3–4; ovary truly inferior; leaves of a pair equal

26. Stamens 3–4; leaves entire or teeth minute, prickle-like ..... RUBIACEAE (2) {G17}

26' Stamens 8; leaves with rounded teeth ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (Chrysosplenium)

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