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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 13

Group 13: Herbs; leaf venation generally parallel or leaves and stem not differentiated; perianth in 1 whorl or absent, sometimes reduced to bristles or minute scales; pistil 1

1. Plant terrestrial, or if aquatic, strongly emergent

2. Flowers all unisexual; inflorescence either a dense erect spike of staminate flowers directly distal to a spike of pistillate flowers, or a group of several spheric unisexual heads attached to a zigzag main axis, spikes or heads 1–4 cm diam ..... TYPHACEAE

2' Flowers bisexual or some or all unisexual; inflorescences of various types, generally < 1 cm diam if spike or head

3. Fruit a berry or capsule with 3–many seeds or breaking into 1-seeded mericarps; perianth segments 4–6, well developed — actually in two whorls, but this may not be evident in open flowers

4. Leaves with expanded blades; perianth parts petal-like, white or cream ..... RUSCACEAE (Maianthemum)

4' Leaves narrowly linear; perianth parts scale-like, green to brown or ± purple-black or tinged ± red-purple

5. Inflorescence of 1–many flowers, variously clustered, subtended individually and/or in small groups by bracts; style 1, stigmas (2)3, linear, spreading; fruit a capsule ..... JUNCACEAE {G16}

5' Inflorescence a bractless raceme; stigmas 3 or 6, ± sessile, papillate or plumose; fruit breaking into mericarps ..... JUNCAGINACEAE {G2,10,16}

3' Fruit an achene or grain, 1-seeded; perianth inconspicuous or 0 or modified as ± conspicuous bristles

6. Inflorescence a bractless emergent spike of bisexual and sometimes staminate flowers, plus 2 submerged, long-styled, sessile pistillate flowers enclosed by leaf sheath at base of peduncle; stamen 1; stigma 1 ..... JUNCAGINACEAE (Triglochin scilloides) (2) {G8}

6' Inflorescence 1–many spikelets with flowers individually subtended or enclosed by scale-like bracts; stamens (1)3(6); stigmas 2–3

7. Stem leafless, the leaves all basal, sometimes reduced to bladeless sheaths ..... CYPERACEAE (2) {G2,8}

7' Stem at least proximally leafy

8. Stems generally 3-angled (cylindric), generally solid; nodes not swollen; leaves generally 3-ranked; spikelet generally without 2 bractlets at base that do not directly subtend flower parts; each flower subtended by 1 bract (in Carex and Kobresia a second, generally hollow, ± flask-shaped bract [perigynium] surrounds or encloses each pistillate flower); perianth of generally inconspicuous to long-exserted bristles or 0; fruit an achene ..... CYPERACEAE (2) {G2,8}

8' Stems cylindric, the internodes generally hollow; nodes swollen, knot-like; leaves 2-ranked or not in obvious ranks; each spikelet generally with 2 bractlets [glumes] at base that do not directly subtend flower parts; each flower generally enclosed by 2 additional bractlets [lemma and palea]; perianth of 2 tiny scales or 0; fruit a grain ..... POACEAE {G2,5,6,8}

1' Plant aquatic, submersed or floating

9. Plant raft-like, free-floating or stranded on shore or drying mud, either plant body 0.4–10 mm, not differentiated into stems and leaves with roots unbranched or 0, or plant with floating rosette of widely wedge-shaped, velvety-hairy leaves and many fine, branched roots ..... ARACEAE {G2,6,8,15}

9' Plant not raft-like, generally rooted, >> 1 cm, differentiated into stems and leaves, not forming floating rosettes; roots generally present, often branched; leaves linear, glabrous

10. Leaves opposite or whorled (occasionally alternate at some nodes), all cauline

11. Leaf coarsely to finely toothed (teeth sometimes appearing ± 0 to naked eye); stipules 0 (leaf base may have ear-like lobes); fruit without a stiff beak ..... HYDROCHARITACEAE (Najas) {G2,8}

11' Leaf entire; stipules fused to blade or free, membranous, entire; fruit with a stiff beak ..... ZANNICHELLIACEAE {G2,8,10}

10' Leaves alternate, basal and/or cauline

12. Leaves all ± basal, sheaths overlapping and blades emerging at different levels, but stem internodes very short, not evident — pistillate flowers paired, axillary, submersed, style 6–20 cm, thread-like, stigma floating, head-like; staminate and bisexual flowers in peduncled spike ..... JUNCAGINACEAE (Triglochin scilloides) (2) {G8}

12' Leaves basal and cauline or all cauline, stem internodes evident

13. Inflorescence a dense, spheric head ..... TYPHACEAE (Sparganium) {G2,6,8}

13' Inflorescence a spike or flowers solitary

14. Inflorescence a flattened spike enwrapped by a sheathing bract; subtidal or intertidal seawater or brackish water of bays and estuaries ..... ZOSTERACEAE {G2,6,8}

14' Inflorescence a cylindric spike, short- to long-stalked; freshwater, brackish, or inland saltwater habitat — carpels actually free but easily misinterpreted

15. Sepals 4; stamens 4; fruits sessile; fresh water in lakes, streams, ponds ..... POTAMOGETONACEAE {G2,10}

15' Sepals 0; stamens 2; fruits on thread-like stalks; fresh to brackish or salt water in coastal to inland areas ..... RUPPIACEAE {G2,8,10}