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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 12

Group 12: Shrubs, trees, or woody vines; perianth in one whorl or absent; flowers bisexual or unisexual; inflorescence various but not catkin or catkin-like spike; pistil 1

1. Plant parasitic on stem of woody host plant ..... VISCACEAE {G6,7,8,9,11,14}

1' Plant rooted in soil, not parasitic

2. Inflorescence a dense spike or a spheric head, or flowers enclosed within a fleshy, hollow receptacle

3. Leaves pinnately compound or modified into linear to oblong or narrowly elliptic, entire, flattened axes without leaflets; fruit a legume — perianth actually of 2 whorls, the calyx easily overlooked ..... FABACEAE (Mimosoideae)

3' Leaves simple, ovate or wider in overall outline, entire, toothed, or palmately lobed; fruit not a legume

4. Inflorescence a hollow receptacle enclosing many tiny flowers; ripened inflorescence an externally smooth, fleshy multiple fruit [a fig]; milky latex present ..... MORACEAE (Ficus)

4' Inflorescence a short, dense spike or a head; ripened pistillate inflorescence an externally roughened spike or spheric head; milky latex present or 0

5. Perianth parts fused into a tube; flowers bisexual ..... ASTERACEAE (2) {G6,7,8,9,14,17}

5' Perianth parts free; flowers unisexual

6. Lf-blade entire to toothed, sometimes irregularly few-lobed, faces glabrous or sparsely short-hairy; ripened pistillate inflorescence a fleshy spike or head; milky latex present; petiole base not expanded, not covering axillary bud; stipules membranous, free, generally early-deciduous ..... MORACEAE {G7,11}

6' Lf-blade ± deeply palmately lobed, the lobes entire or ± toothed, faces densely stellate-tomentose when young; ripened pistillate inflorescence a dry head of long-stiff-hairy achenes; milky latex 0; petiole base expanded, covering axillary bud; stipules large and green, fused around stem, persistent or deciduous — pistils actually > 1 ..... PLATANACEAE {G7,9,10}

2' Inflorescence not a dense spike or a spheric head, flowers not enclosed in a fleshy, hollow receptacle

7. Flowers unisexual, plant monoecious; pistillate inflorescence 1–5-flowered, maturing as a bur with spiny, knob-like, or membranous bract tips; staminate inflorescence a head ..... ASTERACEAE (Ambrosia)

7' Flowers bisexual, or if unisexual, pistillate inflorescence not 1–5-flowered and maturing as a bur with spiny, knob-like, or membranous bract tips; staminate inflorescence various

8. Ovary inferior, partly so, or appearing so

9. Herbage covered with silvery scales; fruit drupe-like — ovary actually superior, ripening as an achene, tightly enclosed by hypanthium base that becomes fleshy at maturity ..... ELAEAGNACEAE

9' Herbage without silvery scales; fruit various

10. Inflorescence unit an involucred head, superficially resembling a single flower ..... ASTERACEAE (2) {G6,7,8,9,14,17}

10' Inflorescence open or flowers solitary or paired

11. Trees, evergreen; stamens many; leaves aromatic — perianth early-deciduous as cap ..... MYRTACEAE (Eucalyptus)

11' Shrubs or woody vines, evergreen or deciduous; stamens 4–12; leaves generally not aromatic

12. Perianth rotate, lobes >> tube; leaves whorled; fruit 2-lobed ..... RUBIACEAE (Galium) {G6,7,8,9}

12' Perianth tubular, lobes << tube; leaves alternate or opposite; fruit not lobed

13. Leaves alternate; perianth tube U-shaped; twining vine ..... ARISTOLOCHIACEAE (Aristolochia)

13' Leaves opposite; perianth tube straight; erect shrub ..... CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Lonicera involucrata)

8' Ovary superior

14. Leaves opposite or whorled

15. Fruit winged, indehiscent; leaves generally lobed or compound

16. Style evident, stigma 1, entire or slightly 2-lobed; fruit 1-winged, not splitting; leaves pinnately compound (leaflet generally 1 in Fraxinus anomala) ..... OLEACEAE (Fraxinus) {G7,9,16}

16' Style very short, stigmas 2(3), elongate; fruit 2(3)-winged, generally splitting into mericarps; leaves palmately lobed or compound or pinnately compound ..... SAPINDACEAE (Acer) {G7,23}

15' Fruit not winged; leaves simple, entire or toothed

17. Flowers bisexual; stamens 20–25(30) ..... ROSACEAE (Coleogyne)

17' Flowers unisexual; stamens generally 3–12

18. Leaf covered with silvery scales ..... ELAEAGNACEAE (Shepherdia) {G7,9}

18' Leaf glabrous or ± hairy

19. Leaves needle-like, abaxially grooved ..... ERICACEAE (Empetrum) (2) {G7,9,16}

19' Leaves not needle-like, not grooved

20. Staminate and pistillate flowers in sessile umbels; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed ..... OLEACEAE (Forestiera) {G7,9}

20' Staminate flowers clustered, pistillate flowers generally solitary; styles or stigmas (2)3–5

21. Staminate inflorescence a raceme or panicle, flowers clearly stalked; fruit 3–4-lobed ..... PICRODENDRACEAE {G7,9}

21' Staminate inflorescence head-like, flowers subsessile; fruit unlobed ..... SIMMONDSIACEAE {G7,9}

14' Leaves alternate

22. Leaves pinnately compound or very deeply pinnately divided

23. Perianth parts ± brown-green, inconspicuous, bract-like; flowers unisexual, plants dioecious ..... ANACARDIACEAE (Pistacia) {G7,11}

23' Perianth parts petal-like, conspicuous; flowers bisexual

24. Shrub; flowers solitary; perianth radial, parts 6, white — sepals actually present in bud, but early-deciduous, 0 in open flower ..... PAPAVERACEAE (Romneya) {G22}

24' Tree; flowers in raceme; perianth bilateral, parts 4, yellow or orange, proximally ± red ..... PROTEACEAE

22' Leaves simple, sometimes lobed

25. Inflorescence flower-like with a cup-like involucre bearing colored, often petal-like nectaries; each stamen [actually a staminate flower] with a jointed stalk [composed of a filament and a pedicel]; pistil [actually pistillate flower] 3-lobed, generally exserted from involucre; milky latex present ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Euphorbia)

25' Inflorescences various, but not flower-like; stamens generally > 1 per flower, the filaments not jointed; pistils various; milky latex generally 0

26. Anthers opening by pores with hinged lids; leaf strongly aromatic — 2-whorled nature of perianth may not be evident in open flowers ..... LAURACEAE {G16}

26' Anthers opening by slits; leaf generally not aromatic

27. Leaves fleshy, cylindric to ± flat ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (Suaeda)

27' Leaves not fleshy, generally flat

28. Leaf palmately veined and lobed

29. Woody vine; tendrils present — calyx 0 or reduced to an entire or slightly lobed rim, easily overlooked ..... VITACEAE (Vitis) {G7,9,23}

29' Erect or spreading shrub; tendrils 0

30. Leaf peltate, glabrous; flowers unisexual, perianth parts ± green, free; stamens very many, the filaments irregularly joined in clusters ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Ricinus) {G7,9}

30' Leaf not peltate, stellate-hairy; flowers bisexual, perianth parts yellow or orange to ± red, petal-like; stamens 5, filaments fused in 1 group ..... MALVACEAE (Fremontodendron) {G19}

28' Leaf pinnately veined or only midvein evident, generally unlobed

31. Perianth parts 2–10 cm; ovules many — sepals actually present in bud, but early-deciduous, 0 in open flower ..... PAPAVERACEAE (Papaveroideae) {G15,20,22,24}

31' Perianth parts generally < 1.5 cm; ovules 1–2 per chamber

32. Plant covered with ± gray or silvery scales

33. Flowers tubular in proximal half, some or all bisexual; tree or large shrub; leaves linear-lanceolate to oblong ..... ELAEAGNACEAE (Elaeagnus)

33' Flowers not tubular, all unisexual, plant dioecious; shrub; leaves various

34. Ovary of pistillate flower enclosed by 2 appressed bracts; leaf surface scales powder-like, not stellate ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (Atriplex) {G6,8}

34' Ovary of pistillate flower subtended by 5 sepals; leaf surface scales stellate ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Croton) {G6,8}

32' Plant without scales

35. Perianth parts 6 — 2-whorled nature of perianth may not be evident in open flowers

36. Flowers solitary, axillary, unisexual; fruit a berry ..... ERICACEAE (Empetrum) (2) {G7,9,16}

36' Flowers in involucred umbels, bisexual; fruit an achene ..... POLYGONACEAE (Eriogonum) {G6,8}

35' Perianth parts generally 4 or 5

37. Stamens = in number to and alternate sepals ..... RHAMNACEAE {G21,23}

37' Stamens = in number to and opposite sepals or > in number than sepals

38. Style and stigma 1

39. Style feathery with long, stiff hairs; fruit an achene surrounded by a tubular hypanthium; branches stiff ..... ROSACEAE (Cercocarpus)

39' Style glabrous; fruit an exposed drupe; branches pliable — corolla 0 or reduced to minute scales, easily overlooked ..... THYMELAEACEAE

38' Styles or stigmas 2–4

40. Fruit a drupe; flowers staminate and bisexual ..... CANNABACEAE (Celtis) {G7}

40' Fruit a winged nutlet or splitting into 1–2-seeded segments that release seeds; flowers unisexual or bisexual

41. Tree; fruit a flattened, round to ovate, 2-winged nutlet ..... ULMACEAE

41' Shrub; fruit splitting into segments

42. Leaves elliptic, crenate; fruit segments 1-seeded ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Bernardia)

42' Leaves oblanceolate to obovate, entire; fruit segments 1–2-seeded ..... PICRODENDRACEAE (Tetracoccus hallii)