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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 11

Group 11: Shrubs or trees; perianth in one whorl or absent; flowers unisexual; staminate flowers in catkins or catkin-like spikes; pistillate flowers with 1 pistil

1. Plant parasitic on stem of woody host plant ..... VISCACEAE {G6,7,8,9,12,14}

1' Plant free-living, rooted in ground

2. Leaves fleshy, scale-like or linear to oblanceolate; catkins erect

3. Leaves scale-like; distal stems ± fleshy, jointed ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (2) {G6,7,8,9,15}

3' Leaves linear to oblanceolate, ± cylindric; distal stems not jointed ..... SARCOBATACEAE {G7,9}

2' Leaves non-fleshy, ± thin to leathery, with well-developed flat blades, generally wider; catkins erect to drooping

4. Leaves opposite ..... GARRYACEAE {G7,9}

4' Leaves alternate

5. Leaf compound

6. Plants dioecious, evergreen; staminate catkin-like inflorescence branched — inflorescence resembles catkin when young, but is actually a branched panicle ..... ANACARDIACEAE (Pistacia) {G7,12}

6' Plants monoecious, deciduous; staminate catkin unbranched ..... JUGLANDACEAE {G7,9}

5' Leaf simple

7. Fruit capsule; seeds 3–many

8. Ovary 3-lobed; seeds 3, without a tuft of hairs; stems brittle ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Acalypha) {G7,9}

8' Ovary unlobed; seeds several–many, each with a tuft of hairs; stems not brittle ..... SALICACEAE {G7,9}

7' Fruit dry or fleshy, indehiscent; seed generally 1

9. Shrubs of ± saline desert habitats; leaves densely stellate-hairy or scaly-puberulent and ± glabrous in age ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (2) {G6,7,8,9,15}

9' Shrubs or trees, generally of moister habitats; leaves glabrous or variously hairy

10. Milky latex present; sepals of pistillate inflorescence enlarged and fleshy in fruit, ripening together with the ovaries as a spheric to ellipsoid or ovoid multiple fruit ..... MORACEAE {G7,12}

10' Milky latex 0; sepals 0 or if present, not becoming fleshy; ovaries ripening as individual drupes, nuts, or winged achenes

11. Leaf blade dotted with minute, bead-like, peltate resin glands, aromatic; stipules 0; staminate catkins short, densely flowered; sepals 0; fruit a papillate, wax-coated drupe, free of subtending bracts or an achene enclosed between a pair of spongy bractlets ..... MYRICACEAE {G7,9}

11' Leaf blade not dotted with minute, bead-like resin glands (except in some Betulaceae), generally not aromatic; stipules formed but generally early-deciduous; staminate catkins elongated, either ± flexible and drooping or stiff and spike-like; sepals present in staminate catkins (except Corylus in Betulaceae); fruit a nut or winged achene

12. Fruits many, small, flattened, winged achenes, clustered in a cone-like fruit catkin; plant deciduous; pistillate flower calyx 0 ..... BETULACEAE {G7,9}

12' Fruits 1–3, each a well-developed nut, subtended or surrounded by a husk-, cup-, or spiny, bur-like involucre; plant deciduous or evergreen; pistillate flower calyx fused to ovary, sepal tips surrounding style base

13. Fruit a nut enclosed in a tubular, husk-like involucre; involucral bractlets 2, papery; staminate catkins drooping, densely flowered, bractlets ± concealing flowers, sepals 0; deciduous shrub ..... BETULACEAE (Corylus)

13' Fruit a nut in a scaly cup-like involucre or 1–3 nuts enclosed in a spiny, bur-like involucre; involucral bractlets many, scaly or spiny; staminate catkins very slender and drooping or stiff and spike-like, bractlets inconspicuous, sepals present; deciduous or evergreen tree or shrub ..... FAGACEAE {G7,9}


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