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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 10

Group 10: Flowers with 2 or more free (or apparently free) pistils

1. Perianth 0 or of 1 whorl, generally called sepals even when petal-like

2. Hypanthium present ..... ROSACEAE (4) {G15,20,21,22,23}

2' Hypanthium 0

3. Trees; leaves palmately lobed ..... PLATANACEAE {G7,9,12}

3' Herbs or woody vines; leaves various

4. Plant terrestrial or if aquatic with emergent leaves ..... RANUNCULACEAE (2)

4' Plant aquatic with submersed or floating leaves

5. Perianth parts 1–4

6. Perianth part 1, white, petal-like, enlarging and turning green in age; stamens 6–18; fruit follicle, 4-seeded ..... APONOGETONACEAE {G2}

6' Perianth parts 4, green or ± brown, sepal-like; stamens 4; fruit achene-like drupe, 1-seeded ..... POTAMOGETONACEAE {G2,13}

5' Perianth ± 0

7. Flowers bisexual, borne along axis of initially short-peduncled spike, peduncle elongating in fruit; stamens 2; pistils (2)4(8); ovary stalk in fruit 12–35 mm; fruit ± ovoid, smooth, beak 0.5–1 mm ..... RUPPIACEAE {G2,8,13}

7' Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate together in sessile, 2-flowered axillary cluster; stamen 1; pistils (1)4–5(9); ovary stalk in fruit 0.1–1.5 mm; fruit abaxially curved, minutely roughened, beak 0.7–2 mm ..... ZANNICHELLIACEAE {G2,8,13}

1' Perianth of 2 or more whorls or spirals, the outer generally called sepals, the inner generally called petals

8. Leaves and often stems thick and fleshy; pistils generally as many as petals or sepals — stamens 1–2 × as many ..... CRASSULACEAE {G19}

8' Leaves and stems not very thick and fleshy; number of pistils same as or different from number of sepals or petals

9. Perianth parts in 3s

10. Leaves compound

11. Tree with unbranched trunk; leaves 4–7 m, leaflets many ..... ARECACEAE (Phoenix) {G7,9}

11' Annual; leaves <= 6 cm, leaflets 3–5 — carpels actually united by common style ..... LIMNANTHACEAE (Floerkea) {G16}

10' Leaves simple

12. Flowers solitary — sepals and petals all similar, ± white or ± red-purple; leaves floating and peltate or some or all submersed and dissected ..... CABOMBACEAE

12' Flowers several–many in raceme- to panicle-like inflorescence

13. Sepals green, petals white (pink) ..... ALISMATACEAE {G2}

13' Sepals and petals the same color, ± white to green or ± red

14. Inflorescence bractless — carpels actually ± fused, separating in fruit ..... JUNCAGINACEAE {G2,13,16}

14' Inflorescence bracted

15. Ovules many per carpel; fruits erect — carpels actually proximally fused [may appear ± free] ..... MELANTHIACEAE {G16}

15' Ovules 1–3 per carpel; fruits spreading ..... SCHEUCHZERIACEAE {G2}

9' Perianth parts generally in 4s or 5s or indefinite in number

16. Stamens > 2 × as many as petal-like perianth segments or > 15

17. Plants obviously woody; shrubs or trees

18. Crushed leaves strongly aromatic; leaves opposite ..... CALYCANTHACEAE

18' Crushed leaves not aromatic; leaves alternate

19. Flowers solitary; seeds with arils ..... CROSSOSOMATACEAE (2)

19' Flowers clustered; seeds without arils ..... ROSACEAE (4) {G15,20,21,22,23}

17' Plants herbaceous or slightly woody at base

20. Hypanthium present ..... ROSACEAE (4) {G15,20,21,22,23}

20' Hypanthium 0

21. Sepals enlarging and persisting around fruit; stamens maturing from flower center toward edge ..... PAEONIACEAE

21' Sepals deciduous as flower opens or withering as fruit matures; stamens maturing from flower edge toward center

22. Sepals 2–3(4), falling as flower opens, not petal-like; carpels actually weakly fused in flower, ± separating in age ..... PAPAVERACEAE (Platystemon)

22' Sepals 4–many, present in open flowers, sometimes petal-like; carpels generally wholly free ..... RANUNCULACEAE (2)

16' Stamens 2 × as many as petals or fewer

23. Petals fused, at least at base

24. Plant erect, prostrate, or twining; flowers generally conspicuous, not concealed by leaves; ovules many per ovary; milky latex generally present — carpels proximally free but actually united by common stigma ..... APOCYNACEAE {G19}

24' Plant prostrate, mat-forming; flowers minute, subsessile, axillary, generally concealed by leaves; ovules 1–2 per ovary; milky latex 0 ..... CONVOLVULACEAE (Dichondra) {G19}

23' Petals free but sometimes attached to a disk-like to tubular hypanthium

25. Hypanthium well developed

26. Leaves simple, basal or cauline; stipules often 0; veins generally palmate; ovules generally several–many per carpel — carpels slightly fused proximally but free most of their length ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (2) {G20,21,24}

26' Leaves simple or compound, generally cauline; stipules generally present; veins often pinnate; ovules generally 1–2 per carpel

27. Shrub ..... CROSSOSOMATACEAE (Glossopetalon spinescens var. aridum)

27' Herb ..... ROSACEAE (4) {G15,20,21,22,23}

25' Hypanthium 0 or inconspicuous

28. Plant herbaceous

29. Annual; ovule 1 per ovary; leaves pinnately divided or compound — carpels actually united by common style ..... LIMNANTHACEAE (Limnanthes) {G20}

29' Perennial herb; ovules several–many per ovary; leaves simple and entire or variously toothed to palmately lobed or compound ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE (2) {G20,21,24}

28' Plant woody

30. Leaves pinnately compound ..... SIMAROUBACEAE (Ailanthus) {G7,9,20}

30' Leaves simple, entire, sometimes scale-like

31. Flowers solitary in leaf axils; fruit a cluster of follicles; leaves elliptic, persistent or drought-deciduous ..... CROSSOSOMATACEAE (2)

31' Flowers in dense panicles; fruit cluster of ± dry drupes; leaves scale-like to narrowly oblong, early-deciduous — shrub with thorny green stems ..... SIMAROUBACEAE (Castela) {G7,9,23}


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